Curriculum, components, development and evaluation
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Curriculum, components, development and evaluation

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Curriculum, components, development and evaluation




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Presentation on theme: "Curriculum, components, development and evaluation"— Presentation transcript:

Slide1

Curriculum, components, development and evaluation

Dr

.

Farzana

Mahdi

Professor

Department

of

Biochemistry

farzana.mahdi@gmail.com

Slide2

Curriculum

After this interaction, learner should be able to-

-- Define and explain the concept of curriculum

-- Enumerate curriculum foundations and components -- Explain the curriculum in his/her own subject area -- Discuss the importance and need for curriculum evaluation

Learning Objectives

Slide3

Definition

Curriculum is a plan of action which incorporates the learning outcomes to be attained over a period of time by exposing the learner to various learning experiences”

Slide4

What is a Curriculum?

? A statement of learning objectives

? A statement of learning experiences

? A statement of learning outcomes ? A listing of the subject matter (syllabus)

Slide5

WHAT IS CURRICULUM?

CURRICULUM

Intended aims & objectives, content, experiences, outcomes and processes of the educational programme

Education structure

Entry

requirements

Assessment

system

Flexibilities

Programme

organisation

Length

Expected methods of

learning, teaching,

feedback and supervision.

Syllabus content:

Knowledge, skills,

attitudes, expertise

to be achieved.

Slide6

Curriculum

Latin word means “ Race- course”

What it denotes?

Slide7

It denotes

Path to be followed

Frame within which it has to be followed

Slide8

? CurriculumProvides direction to both teachers as well as students

Assists in selection of appropriate learning resource material

Helps to adopt appropriate teaching-learning activities

Helps in designing appropriate assessment tools Ultimately helps designing relevant and efficient educational programme

Slide9

Curriculum

Student

What to learn

*Content

How to learn

*Educational strategy

Teaching Learning tools

Assessment

Educational

Enviornment

Learning Outcome

Slide10

Curriculum Development

Slide11

Models of curriculum Development

The Tyler model

The

Taba Model The Saylor and Alexander Model The

Goodlad

Model

The

Hunkins

Model

The Miller and Seller Model

The

Zais

Model

Slide12

Zais Model

Needs knowledge of – 

A – Curriculum foundations

B – Curriculum components

Slide13

Slide14

Curriculum foundations Answer of four basic questions give desired shape to curriculum

Why

a subject is being taught?

Who is being taught? MBBS/BDSHow a subject will be taught?face to face or distance modeWhat is to be achieved 

Learning outcome

Slide15

Why is anatomy being taught?

Students understand the

Inter- relationship of various structures of human body in better way

Students score better in AIPGME/ state

PGME/ USMLE

Emphasis on basics

Emphasis on recent

advances

Slide16

Curricular Components

Educational Objectives

what will the learner be able to do at the end of instructions.

Educational Materials learning resources like books, manuals, models, A - V aids etc. Educational Methods denote the way the materials will be used e. g. lectures, practicals, group discussions, self study, field visits etc.

Evaluation

to certify the attainment of stipulated proficiency; and to provide a feedback to the learner and the teacher

Slide17

Which is correct ?

A

Objectives

MaterialsMethodsAssessment planningAssessmentB

Objectives

Assessment planning

Materials

Methods

Assessment

Slide18

“Begin with the end in mind”

Slide19

Which is correct ?

A

Objectives

MaterialsMethodsAssessment planningAssessmentB

Objectives

Assessment planning

Materials

Methods

Assessment

Slide20

Curriculum developmentCurriculum planning should be flexible

(example of communication skill)

Same learning objective could be achieved by using different teaching methodology.

Slide21

Curriculum development

Slide22

Subject centered approachEmphasis to complete subject matter

Number of lectures / number of topics / number of hours are assigned

  

(Contemporary MBBS curriculum)

Slide23

DISCIPLINE BASED

O & G

SURG

MED

PED

FM

PATH

MICR

PHARM

CM

ANAT

PHYSIO

BIO CH.

BIO

PHY

MATH

CHEM

COMP

G.K.

Slide24

Learner centered approachEmphasis on fulfilling the needs of learner.

Students will be active and responsible participants in their own learning.

Strengthens student motivation, promotes peer communication

, builds student‐teacher relationships and promotes active learning. (Learner’s intent to crack PGME/USMLE/ NEET)

Slide25

BE LEARNER ORIENTED

STUDENT DECIDES ON

Learning objectives

Course contentsMethods to be used to achieve objectivesLearning resourcesSequence and pace of learning.Time of Assessment

Slide26

Problem solving approachEmphasis on ability of learner to solve a given problem

Involves subject as well as learner centered approach

Slide27

None of the approaches are entirely satisfactory

Slide28

SPICES model of Medical curriculum

(Harden et al 1984)

Modern System

Traditional System

S

tudent

-centered

-

T

eacher-centered

P

roblem

-based

-

I

nformation-gathering

I

ntegrated

-

Discipline-based

C

ommunity

-based

-

H

ospital-based

E

lectives

-

S

tandard-program

S

ystematic

-

A

pprenticeship-based

(More the curriculum is on left side, the better it is )

Slide29

INEGRATION

HORIZONTOL

VERTICAL

SPIRAL

Slide30

Slide31

INTEGRATED

Anatomy

Biochemistry

Slide32

Advantages of IntegrationReduces fragmentation of medical course.

Improves education effectiveness of teaching.

Promotes staff communication and collaboration.

Advantages of subject basedOmission of topics is avoided.Content of discipline is not neglected.Less costly.Teacher friendly.Provides a career choice.

Slide33

Curriculum Designs

S

tudent oriented

Teacher oriented

P

roblem Based

Information Gathering

I

ntegrated

Discipline based

C

ommunity Oriented

Hospital based

E

lective

Uniform

S

ystematic

Apprenticeship/ Opportunistic

THE IDEAL MODEL?

Slide34

Ideal Curriculum

NATIONAL HEALTH POLICY

Slide35

Ideal Curriculum

STATE HEALTH POLICY

NATIONAL HEALTH POLICY

Slide36

Ideal Curriculum

UNIVERSITY GOALS

STATE HEALTH POLICY

NATIONAL HEALTH POLICY

Slide37

Curriculum Goals

Department Goals

Objectives - Assessments & Teaching Strategies

Ideal Curriculum

UNIVERSITY GOALS

STATE HEALTH POLICY

NATIONAL HEALTH POLICY

Slide38

Curriculum Goals

Department Goals

Objectives - Assessments & Teaching Strategies

Assignments

D1

Dn

D6

D5

D4

D3

D2

Ideal Curriculum

UNIVERSITY GOALS

STATE HEALTH POLICY

NATIONAL HEALTH POLICY

Slide39

Curriculum

Goals

Department Goals

Objectives - Assessments & Teaching Strategies

Assignments

D1

Dn

D6

D5

D4

D3

D2

Present situation

of medical education

NATIONAL HEALTH POLICY

STATE HEALTH POLICY

UNIV. GOAL

Slide40

Curricular determinants

National health objectives

Institutional Objectives

Departmental Objectives

Subject Content

Learning experiences

Assessment plan

Slide41

Slide42

Curriculum Development: A Six Step Approach

David E Kern

Slide43

Contents Step 1 Problem Identification and General Needs Assessment Step 2

Targeted Needs Assessment

Step 3 Goals and Objectives

Step 4 Educational Strategies Step 5 ImplementationStep 6 Evaluation and Feedback

Slide44

CURRICULUM IS TOO IMPORTANT NOT TO BE EVALUATED

Slide45

WHAT CAN EVALUATION ADDRESS?

EVALUATION

structure

process

content

relevance

intentions vs achievement: curriculum in practice

qualities of graduates

teaching

learning

professional induction

cost-benefit

the unexpected

But almost never, cause and effect

outcomes & effects

Slide46

THE EVALUATION SYSTEM

PURPOSE

CONTEXT

METHOD

OUTCOME

Decision

Communicatio

n

Curriculum change & development

Slide47

APPROACHThere is no one ‘correct’ approach

Your evaluation MUST be based on your defined

objectives.

Remember:

Evaluation is part of a change management process for curriculum renewal

Slide48

"Curriculum is in the air. No matterwhat the problem in medical education, curriculum is looked to as the solution“

R M Harden

Slide49

Slide50