Foam Response Objectives

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Foam Response Objectives




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Presentations text content in Foam Response Objectives

Slide1

Foam Response Objectives

Foam types and application procedures

Foam type currently in inventory

Calculations for foam flows / PSI

Response to Trucks / Trains

SPFD Response Bulletin

Slide2

What is foam?“…an aggregate of air-filled bubbles formed from aqueous solutions which is lower in density than flammable liquids. It is used principally to form a cohesive floating blanket on flammable and combustible liquids, and prevents or extinguishes fire by excluding air and cooling the fuel. It also prevents reignition by suppressing formation of flammable vapors. It has the property of adhering to surfaces, which provides a degree of exposure protection from adjacent fires” (NFPA 11).

Basic Foam Principles

Slide3

Basic Foam Principles

Why use foam?

Only agent capable of suppressing vapors & providing visible proof of security

Foam blanket on

unignited

spill can prevent fire

Suppression of vapors prevents them from finding ignition source

Slide4

Why use foam?Can provide post-fire security by protecting hazard until it can be secured / removedCan provide protection from flammable liquids for fire & rescue personnel during emergency operations

Basic Foam Principles

Slide5

Basic Foam Principles

How foam works:

Foam can:

Exclude oxygen from fuel vapors

Cool fuel surface with water content of foam

Prevent release of flammable vapors from fuel surface

Emulsify fuel

Slide6

Basic Foam Principles

How foam works:Foam tetrahedron:Before being used must be proportioned & aerated4 elements:Foam concentrateWaterAirAeration

Slide7

Basic Foam Principles

What is foam not effective on?

Foam is not effective on Class C electrical fires:

Foam contains 94–97% water & water conducts electricity

Class C fires can be extinguished using nonconductive extinguishing agents

Slide8

Basic Foam Principles

What is foam not effective on?

Foam is not effective on 3-dimensional fires:

Recommended to first control spill fire

Extinguish flowing fire using dry chemical agent

Slide9

What is foam not effective on?Foam is not effective on pressurized gases:Vapor pressure too high for foam to be effectiveExamples:AcetyleneButadieneButaneLPGPropaneVinyl chloride

Basic Foam Principles

Slide10

Basic Foam Principles

What is foam not effective on?Foam is not effective on combustible metals:Combustible metals usually react with waterFires involving combustible metals require specialized techniques & extinguishing agents

Slide11

Basic Foam Principles

What is foam effective on?

Effective at suppressing vapors & extinguishing Class B fires

2 categories of Class B products:

Hydrocarbons

Polar solvents

Hydrocarbons

Polar solvents

Slide12

Basic Foam Principles

Foam terminology:

Foam concentrate

Foam solution

Finished foam

Slide13

Firefighting Foam

FOAM EXTINGUISHES FLAMMABLE OR

COMBUSTIBLLIQUID

FIRES IN FOUR WAYS:

1. Excludes air from the flammable vapors.

2. Eliminates vapor release from fuel surface.

3. Separates the flames from the fuel surface.

4. Cools the fuel surface and surrounding metal

Slide14

Basic Foam Principles

Types of foam:

Protein foam

Fluoroprotein

foams

AFFF

FFFP

AR foam

Slide15

Basic Foam Principles

Foam characteristics:

Knockdown

Heat resistance

Fuel tolerance

Vapor suppression

Alcohol tolerance

Slide16

PropertyProteinFluoroproteinAFFFFFFPAR-AFFFKnockdownFairGoodExcellentGoodExcellentHeat ResistanceExcellentExcellentFairGoodGoodFuel ToleranceFairExcellentModerateGoodGoodVapor SuppressionExcellentExcellentGoodGoodGoodAlcohol ToleranceNoneNoneNoneNoneExcellentSource: National Foam

Foam Characteristics

Slide17

AFFF’s are a combination of fluorochemical surfactants and synthetic foaming agents. AFFF’s extinguish fires by forming a aqueous film. This film is a thin layer of foam solution that spreads rapidly across the surface of a hydrocarbon fuel causing dramatic fire knockdown.

AFFF

Slide18

Alcohol resistant-AFFF foams act as a conventional AFFF on hydrocarbonfuels, forming an aqueous film on the surface of the hydrocarbon fuel. When used on polar solvents (or water miscible fuels), the polysaccharide polymerforms a tough membrane which separates the foam from the fuel and prevents the destruction of the foamblanket

AR-AFFF

Slide19

Basic Foam Principles

Foam proportioning & delivery systems:Concentration levels:Hydrocarbons: 3%Polar solvents: 6%Foam proportioning systems:Eductors:In-line eductors: Advantages

Slide20

Basic Foam Principles

Foam proportioning & delivery systems:Foam proportioning systems:Eductors:Bypass eductorsCommon eductor failures

Slide21

Basic Foam Principles

Foam proportioning & delivery systems:Foam proportioning systems:Foam nozzles:Foam proportioning nozzles:Advantages

Slide22

Basic Foam Principles

Foam proportioning & delivery systems:Foam proportioning systems:Air aspirating nozzlesNon-air aspirating nozzles

Slide23

Basic Foam Principles

Application techniques:

Rain-down:

Nozzle elevated & foam allowed to fall over spill as gently as possible

Slide24

Basic Foam Principles

AR foams:

Use Type II application techniques:

Apply indirectly to fire

Type III application:

Effective only when deflected off surfaces

Best option may be to protect surrounding exposures

Slide25

Basic Foam Principles

Require higher flow rate of foam to extinguish fires:

AFFF

-type: 1

gpm

foam / 10 ft

2

burning surface on hydrocarbon-type fuel

Ethanol-blended fuels: 2

gpm

foam / 10 ft

2

of AR type foam

Slide26

Foam Recommendations for Fire Departments

AR foams effective on both alcohol & hydrocarbon fires:

Some have quicker knockdown abilities & longer foam retention times than

protein-based hydrocarbon foams

Thermal imaging camera use recommended

Foam delivery systems such as foam tanks & totes cannot be shaken & remixed easily

Foam can stratify; must have maintenance program for re-agitation

Slide27

South Portland Foam Supply

AR-

AFFF

Foam Concentrate Locations

30 Gallons on E-5

200 gallons @ Western Ave (Fairchild trailer).

500 gallons on E-2. (for Gulf)

990 gallons (825 on trailer 165 storage) @ Gulf.

2300 gallons (825 on trailer and 1475 storage & rack) @ Mobil.

3300 gallons (825 on trailer and 2475 storage & rack) @

Citgo

.

AFFF Foam Concentrate Locations

500 Gallons on E-6

SPFD Foam Trailer has 990 Gallons

Numerous 55 gallon drums @ Central (2000 gallons)

Trailers (2) Portland Pipe Line (1) Sprague (1) Global

Slide28

EERC Video

Click on for “Responding to Ethanol Incidents”

Slide29

SOG REVIEW

Click on for SOG 6.525

Tank Farm and Terminal Operations

Slide30

Ships in our Port

This is where it begins! SuezmaxThese vessels weigh from 120,000 to 200,000 dead weight tons, with a capacity of 1 million barrels of oil (42 millions gallons). This is the largest size tanker that can travel through the Suez Canal.

Slide31

Standard Storage Tank w/ Additive Tanks in Front

Slide32

Any of These Could be Ethanol(They aren’t because you can tell by the lack of black streaks)

Slide33

Loading Rack

Slide34

Portland Pipeline

Slide35

Foam Connections

Slide36

More Connections

Slide37

Rim Fire in Searsport No Foam Connections like in SPRubber seal burned away

Slide38

Damaged Leg holding the floating roof up (too much H2O)

Slide39

Foam Calculations

Tank Size (diameter)

Tank 26 is 200 feet

Tank 23 is 150 feet

Application Rate: .16 GPM per SQ Foot

65 minutes Application Time

Slide40

Tank Flow Requirements

Tank 23

Foam Solution 2826

gpm

Foam needed for 65 minutes = 5511 gallons

Tank 26

Foam Solution 5024 gpm

Foam needed for 65 minutes = 9815 gallons

Slide41

Full Surface Hydrocarbon

Basic equation: Tank Area x F low Rate x Run Time in Minutes

Diameter GPM Flow Foam Concentrate Flow (GPM) Water Flow (GPM) Total Flow (GPM) Total Concentrate Required for 65 min (gallons)

150 diameter

3.14 x r

2

(0.16)(65) 3.14 X 75

2

= 17,662.6 x .16 = 2826 gallons per minute

3 % foam calculation: 2826 X .03= 85

gpm

foam and 2826 – 85 =2741

gpm

water

2826 X 65 = 183,690 gallons (Total Flow)

Total Water required = 178,179 gallons

Total Foam required = 5511 gallons

200 diameter

3.14 x r

2

(0.16)(65) 3.14 X 100

2

= 31.400 x .16 = 5024 gallons per minute

3 % foam calculation: 5024 X .03= 151

gpm

foam and 5024 – 151 = 4873

gpm

water

5024 X 65 = 326,560 gallons (Total Flow)

Total Water required = 316,745 gallons

Total Foam required = 9815 gallons

Slide42

Risk Analysis

Life Safety

Water supply

This is most important!

Exposures

Incident Command structure

Public Information

Notifications

Develop Operational Plan

Are we in a hurry?

Slide43

An Incident at one of these facilities will most likely require moving big water

Slide44

Truck Scenario

Slide45

Trucks

Average 9000-11500 gallons

Slide46

DOT 111

33,000 gallons (normally only Crude or similar products in Maine / no gasoline or ethanol)

Slide47

VIDEO

Click on for Video

Slide48

Calculations Spill Fires

Hydrocarbon Spill (

AFFF

)

Basic equation: Area x Flow Rate x Run Time in Minutes (

AFFF

)

(L x W) x (0.16)(15)

Example: 25 x 40 Spill

25 X 40 = 1000 X .16 = 160

gpm

flow

Total Foam Concentrate required = 2400 gallons

5 gallons of foam per minute for a total of 75 gallons

Total water required = 2325 gallons

2 Handlines at 126

gpm

Slide49

Calculations Spill Fires

Polar Solvent Spill (Ethanol) (AR-

AFFF

)

Basic equation: Area x Flow Rate x Run Time in Minutes (

AFFF

)

(L x W) x (0.

30

)(15)

Example: 25 x 40 Spill

25 X 40 = 1000 X .30 = 300

gpm

flow

Total Foam Concentrate required = 4500 gallons

9 gallons of foam per minute for a total of 135 gallons

Total water required = 4365 gallons

3 Handlines (each at 125gpm)

Slide50

Truck Fire Scenario Flow Calculations

Based on 3 – 1 3/4 hand lines

125

gpm

each

3% AFFF or AR-AFFF

15 minute application rate

375 gallons of solution x 15 minutes

170 Gallons Foam

5455 Gallons Water

Slide51

Out of Town Foam Response

2014-01

 

To

:

All Personnel

Date: February 26, 2014

From: Chief Guimond

Subject: Out of Town Petroleum Response

 

When we receive a mutual aid request for a petroleum emergency, spill or fire, the following shall be the

running assignment.

 

Engine 5 and the duty chief will respond immediately to the scene. They will give a report, establish a

water supply, and request any additional resources. Our job is foam application and technical assistance.

(If Engine 5 is using Truck 1 take Engine 3)

 

Engine 8 will be responsible for sending the Prime Mover to Cash Corner to pick up the foam trailer with

additional

AFFF

foam, or Gulf’s trailer for AR-

AFFF

foam dependant on product involved. The prime Mover

and trailer will respond to the scene as a team with Engine 8, Engine 6 (500 gallons

AFFF

), and Engine 2

with (500 gallons of AR-

AFFF

).

 

Response:

Engine 5, Engine 8, Engine 6, Engine 2, PM-2 with foam trailer Duty Chief

Units will meet at Central and respond as a group other than Engine 5 and Duty Chief

 

Engine 1 and truck 1 will be in service with call back crews to provide coverage within the city

(An all hands should be requested by the duty chief if a long term commitment is anticipated)

Engine 3 will be put in service to cover Cash Corner

Squad 4 will be moved to central to cover and organize any additional resources needed.

Truck 2 will be put in service

Slide52

QUESTIONS

Slide53

Slide54

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Slide57


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