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Jesus of Nazareth King of the Jews
The Dawn of Christianity
Between the Testaments
and the Early Church Age
Jewish Revolt Groups
and the Temple Destruction
Clash of Cultures: Judaism and Hellenism
People of the BookThe Sacred WritingsApocryphal Literature, Messiahs, and ResurrectionThe Essenes and the MaccabeesThe Herodians, the Romans, and the Prophets
Trials and Tribulations of Jesus
Resurrection and the Birth of the Church
Paul’s Missionary Journeys
Paul’s Letters and Trials
Jewish Revolt Groups and the Temple Destruction
How We Got the Bible
Sicarri, and Zealots.The Fourth Philosophy and the
Sicarii did not stem from peasants nor include prophets nor a royal or messianic posture.Between 6-9AD, a leader, Judas of Gamala, in conjunction with the Pharisee Saddok, urged the Jews not to submit to Roman taxation. This revolutionary party was known as the Fourth Philosophy.
Their beliefs were: (1) reject the Roman tax assessment as slavery (II Samuel 24), (2) submit to no ruler except God (Augustus), (3) resist submission, and (4) if killed, they would be
martyrs, if successful, they would be free to usher in the kingdom of God. They were scribes, priests, and intellectuals. These resisters did not take up arms.
Sicarii operated in Jerusalem in the 50’sAD. They were urban assassins. The movement was not connected to the Fourth Philosophy but it’s leaders were related to Judas of Gamala (Galilee). These included his sons James and Simon, his grandson
Menahem, and later Eliazar ben Jair, the leader of the group at Masada. Urban terrorism became the only method of expression of a crushed people. They focused on killing the collaborating Jewish priests and Herodian family notables. They assassinated Jonathan the High Priest in 37AD.
They kidnapped for ransom the secretary of the High Priest Ananias in 62AD. They executed the High Priest Ananias in 66AD. They were driven out of Jerusalem in 66AD and
Menahem was killed.
Sicarri remaining fled to Masada and committed suicide in 73AD under their leader Eleazar ben
The Zealots were armed peasants arising in 67AD and converging on Jerusalem. They were a fragmented group consisting of: 6,000 under John of
Gischala, 10,000 under Simon bar Giora, and 5,000
Idumeans while only 2,400 were leaderless as Zealots.These groups sought to oust the Romans. The Zealots sought to oust or kill the Herodians and priestly rulers.
The Zealots, by lots, placed peasant villagers who were descendents of
into the priesthood leadership. The Zealots were headed by a collective leadership determined democratically by lot and pursuing egalitarian theocratic principles.
Josephus, the writer, deserted to the Roman army in Galilee.
were four parties among the literate: the Pharisees, Sadducees,
, and Zealots. The Pharisees and
are known because of the writings they left.
There was no long standing movement for national liberation during 1
century AD Palestine. The notable conflict was between the peasants and the rich (priests, nobles, and