Jesus of Nazareth King of the Jews
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Jesus of Nazareth King of the Jews

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Jesus of Nazareth King of the Jews

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Jesus of Nazareth King of the Jews

Steve Plaster

The Dawn of Christianity

Between the Testaments

and the Early Church Age

Lesson 11

Jewish Revolt Groups

and the Temple Destruction


Lesson Structure

Clash of Cultures: Judaism and Hellenism

People of the BookThe Sacred WritingsApocryphal Literature, Messiahs, and ResurrectionThe Essenes and the MaccabeesThe Herodians, the Romans, and the Prophets

Trials and Tribulations of Jesus

Resurrection and the Birth of the Church

Paul’s Missionary Journeys

Paul’s Letters and Trials

Jewish Revolt Groups and the Temple Destruction

How We Got the Bible



Fourth Philosophy,

Sicarri, and Zealots.The Fourth Philosophy and the

Sicarii did not stem from peasants nor include prophets nor a royal or messianic posture.Between 6-9AD, a leader, Judas of Gamala, in conjunction with the Pharisee Saddok, urged the Jews not to submit to Roman taxation. This revolutionary party was known as the Fourth Philosophy.


Their beliefs were: (1) reject the Roman tax assessment as slavery (II Samuel 24), (2) submit to no ruler except God (Augustus), (3) resist submission, and (4) if killed, they would be

martyrs, if successful, they would be free to usher in the kingdom of God. They were scribes, priests, and intellectuals. These resisters did not take up arms.



Sicarii operated in Jerusalem in the 50’sAD. They were urban assassins. The movement was not connected to the Fourth Philosophy but it’s leaders were related to Judas of Gamala (Galilee). These included his sons James and Simon, his grandson

Menahem, and later Eliazar ben Jair, the leader of the group at Masada. Urban terrorism became the only method of expression of a crushed people. They focused on killing the collaborating Jewish priests and Herodian family notables. They assassinated Jonathan the High Priest in 37AD.


They kidnapped for ransom the secretary of the High Priest Ananias in 62AD. They executed the High Priest Ananias in 66AD. They were driven out of Jerusalem in 66AD and

Menahem was killed.




Sicarri remaining fled to Masada and committed suicide in 73AD under their leader Eleazar ben



The Zealots were armed peasants arising in 67AD and converging on Jerusalem. They were a fragmented group consisting of: 6,000 under John of

Gischala, 10,000 under Simon bar Giora, and 5,000

Idumeans while only 2,400 were leaderless as Zealots.These groups sought to oust the Romans. The Zealots sought to oust or kill the Herodians and priestly rulers.


The Zealots, by lots, placed peasant villagers who were descendents of


into the priesthood leadership. The Zealots were headed by a collective leadership determined democratically by lot and pursuing egalitarian theocratic principles.

Josephus, the writer, deserted to the Roman army in Galilee.






were four parties among the literate: the Pharisees, Sadducees,


, and Zealots. The Pharisees and


are known because of the writings they left.

There was no long standing movement for national liberation during 1


century AD Palestine. The notable conflict was between the peasants and the rich (priests, nobles, and


in league with Roman occupiers).



Jesus of Nazareth King of the Jews

Steve Plaster

The Dawn of Christianity

Between the Testaments

and the Early Church Age

Lesson 11

Jewish Revolt Groups

and the Temple Destruction