Intake of inorganic arsenic ov er a long period can lead to chronic arsenic poisoni ng arsenicosis Effects whic h can take years to develop depending on the level of exposure incl ude skin lesions peripheral neuropathy gastrointestinal symptoms diab ID: 36495 Download PdfTags :
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Presentation on theme: "PREVENTING DISEASE THROUG H HEALTHY ENVIRONMENTS EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC A MAJOR PUBLIC HEALTH CONCERN Soluble inorganic arsenic is acute ly toxic"— Presentation transcript
PREVENTING DISEASE THROUGH HEALTHY ENVIRONMENTS EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC: A MAJOR PUBLIC HEALTH CONCERN can lead to soil contamination. It is also used in the pharmaceutical and glass industries, in the manufacture of alloys, sheep arsenic-containing pigments, diminishing extent, in the production of agrochemicals (especially for use in orchardsnic compounds are also employed in limited amounts in the microelectrolevels in air can be found in the working environment as well as the general environment around non-ferrous metal smelters, where arsenic trioxide may be formed, and some coal-ood usually contributes most to the daily intake of arsenic. Fish, shellfish, meat, poultry, dairy productsmain sources of dietary intake. However, the involves organic compounds (e.g. arsenobetaand food crops irrigated with contaminated waExposure of smokers to arsenic arises from the natural inorganic arsenic content of tobacco. This content is increased where tobacco plants have been treated with lead arsenate insecticide. Smelter workers, who have an el4,5World Health Organization (WHO) arsenic guidelines Tolerable intake level In a review of the latest scientific evidence conducted in 2010, the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) determined the lower limit on the benchmark dose for a 0.5% increased incidence of lung cancer 0.5) from epidemiological data to be 3.0 µg/kg body weight per day (27 µg/kg body weight per day based on the range of estimated total dietary exposure). The Committee noted that the previously established provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 15 µg/kg body weight (equivalent to 2.1 µg/kg body weight per day) for inorganic arsenic was in the region of the 0.5 and therefore was no longer appropriate. This PTWI was therefore withdrawn by the Committee. No new tolerable intake level could be established. In areas where levels in water are below the WHO drinking-water guideline value, human health effects are unlikely. 10 µg/l (provisional guideline value, in view of scientific uncertainties surrounding the risk assessment for arsenic carcinogenicity) Air A safe level of arsenic in air cannot be established. e oral route are most likely to occur through consumption of arsenic-contaminated drinking much lower. The intake of small quantities of organic arsenic via The immediate symptoms of acute arsenic poisoning include vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhoea. These are followed by numbness and tingling of the extremities, muscle cramping and death, in extreme cases. During long-term exposure to high levels ofwater), the first changes are usually seen in the skin: pigmentation changes and then s of the hands and soles of the feet. neuropathy, gastrointestinal symptoms, conjunctivitis, diabetes, renal system effects, enlarged liver, bone marrow depression, deease of blood vessels leading to gangrene. Malnutrition may contribute to its development. that have been shown to cause cancer in humans through consumption of drinking-watelimited evidence that it may also cause canInternational Agency for Research on Ca (Group 1), which means that there is sufficient evidence for their carcinogenicity in humans. The organic arsenic compounds monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid are the active ingredients of some herbicides and are metabolites of inorganic arsenic. On the basis of sufficient evidence of cancer in experimental animals and because monomethylarsonic acid is extensively metabolized to dimethylarsinic acid, both compounds are classified as at are not metabolized in humans are (Group 3). Furthermore, IARC has stated egnant women chronically exposed to arsenic-contaminated drinking-water are at increased risk for spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and preterm birth. linked to the development of lung cancerLong-term actions are required to reduce exposure to arsenic from mining, metal smelting and ide use and timber treatment. In particular, nic from drinking-water The following actions are needed: Make available drinking-water with arsenic concentrations below 10 µg/l in areas where the level is higher. Possible measures include: collecting rainwater (while ensuring that measures are in place to prevent microbial contamination and breeding of mosquitoes); testing water for arsenic levels, and informing users of the results; installing arsenic removal systems, either centralized or domestic, and ensuring appropriate disposal of the removed arsenic; discriminating between high-arsenic and hand pumps in different colours (e.g. reinorganic arsenic through the skin is minimal, arsenic-rich water can still safely sector aware of the harmful effects of problems. It should be noted that total urnic arsenic, some of which is not. Where possible, arsenic speciation should be attempted in order to differentiate these two forms.IPCS (2001). Arsenic and arsenic compounds, 2nd ed. Geneva, World Health Organization, International Programme on Chemical Safety (Environmental Health Criteria 224; http://whqlibdoc.who.int/ehc/WHO_EHC_224.pdf Lokuge KM et al. (2004). The effect of arsenic mitigation interventions on disease burden in Environmental Health Perspectives, 112(11):11721177 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/artic IPCS (2002). Arsine: Human health aspects. Geneva, World Health Organization, International Programme on Chemical Safety (Concise International Chemical Assessment Document No. 47; http://www.inchem.org/documentscicads/cicad47.htm WHO (2000). Arsenic. In: , 2nd ed. Copenhagen, World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, pp. 125128 http://www.euro.who.int/__data/asset IARC (1987). Summaries & evaluations: Arsenic and arsenic compounds (Group 1). Lyon, International Agency for Research on Cancer, p. 100 (IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of http://www.inchem.org/documents/iarc/suppl7/arsenic.html Safety evaluation of certain food contaminants. (WHO Food Additives Series, No. 63;http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/jecfa/monographs/en/index.html ) [summary in FAO/WHO (2010). Summary and conclusions of the seventy-second meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, Rome, 1625 February 2010. Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; Geneva, World Health Organization http://www.who.int/foodsafety/chem/summary72_rev.pdf ).] WHO (2008). Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 3rd edition incorporating 1st and 2nd Vol. 1. Recommendations. Geneva, World Health Organization, pp. 306308b ). . Geneva, World Health Organization, International Programme on Chemical Safety (Poison Information Monograph No. G042; http://www.inchem.org/documents/pims/chemical/pimg042.htm ). WHO (2001). Sheet No. 210; http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs210/en/print.html A review of human carcinogens. C. Metals, arsenic, dusts, and fibres.Lyon, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Vol. 100) [summary in Straif K et al. (2009). A review of human carcinogensPart C: MetalsThe Lancet Oncology, 10:453http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanonc45(09)70134-2/fulltext ]. IARC (2004). Summaries & evaluations: Arsenic in drinking-water (Group 1). Lyon, International Agency for Research on Cancer, p. 39 (IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk to Humans, Vol. 84; http://www.inchem.org/documents/iarc/vol84/84-01- arsenic.html ). © World Health Organization 2010 All rights reserved. All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information contained in this publication. However, the published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damage arising from its use. 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