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Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species Approach
Core Case Study: The Passenger Pigeon: Gone Forever
Passenger pigeon hunted to extinction by 1900
Commercial hunters used a "stool pigeon”
Geological record shows five mass extinctions
Human activities: hastening more extinctions?Slide3
Figure 9.1Lost natural capital: passenger pigeons have been extinct in the wild since 1900 because of human activities. The last known passenger pigeon died in the U.S. state of Ohio’s Cincinnati Zoo in 1914.Slide4Slide5
9-1 What Role Do Humans Play in the Premature Extinction of Species?
We are degrading and destroying biodiversity in many parts of the world, and these threats are increasing.
Species are becoming extinct 100 to 1,000 times faster than they were before modern humans arrived on the earth (the background rate), and by the end of this century, the extinction rate is expected to be 10,000 times the background rate.Slide6
Human Activities Are Destroying and Degrading Biodiversity
Human activity has disturbed at least half of the earth’s land surface
Fills in wetlands
Converts grasslands and forests to crop fields and urban areas
Degraded aquatic biodiversitySlide7
Extinctions Are Natural but Sometimes They Increase Sharply
Mass extinction: causes?
Poorly understood, but involve global changes in environmental conditions.
Levels of species extinction
Local extinction, or extirpation
Some Human Activities Cause Premature Extinctions; the Pace Is Speeding Up (1)
Premature extinctions due to
Overhunting, or overexploitationSlide9
Some Human Activities Cause Premature Extinctions; the Pace Is Speeding Up (2)
Conservative estimates of extinction = 0.01-0.1%
Growth of human population will increase this loss to 10 000 times (to 1%)
Rates are higher where there are more endangered species
Tropical forests and coral reefs, wetlands and estuaries—sites of new species—being destroyed
Animal Species Prematurely Extinct Due to Human ActivitiesSlide11
Figure 9.3Effects of a 0.1% extinction rate.Slide12
Endangered and Threatened Species Are Ecological Smoke Alarms
International Union for the for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), or the World Conservation Union.
Since 1960, published Red List
In 2007, listed 16, 306 animals and plants that are in danger of extinction—60% higher than in 1995.
Characteristics of such species
Utah prairie dog
Golden lion tamarin
Northern spotted owl
Hawksbill sea turtle
Endangered natural capital
ome species that are endangered or threatened with premature extinction largely because of human activities. Almost 30,000 of the world’s species and roughly 1,300 of those in the United States are officially listed as being in danger of becoming extinct. Most biologists believe the actual number of species at risk is much larger.Slide14
Fixed migratory patterns
Blue whale, whooping crane, sea turtle
Feeds at high trophic level
Bengal tiger, bald eagle, grizzly bear
Elephant seal, desert pupfish
Snow leopard, tiger, elephant, rhinoceros, rare plants and birds
Low reproductive rate (K-strategist)
Blue whale, giant panda, rhinoceros
African violet, some orchids
California condor, grizzly bear, Florida panther
Blue whale, giant panda, Everglades kite
Characteristics of species that are prone to ecological and biological extinction.
Which of these characteristics helped lead to the premature extinction of the passenger pigeon within a single human lifetime?Slide15
Endangered natural capital: percentage of various types of species threatened with premature extinction because of human activities (Concept 9-1A). Question: Why do you think fishes top this list? (Data from World Conservation Union, Conservation International, World Wide Fund for Nature, 2005 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)Slide16
Science Focus: Estimating Extinction Rates Is Not Easy
Hard to document due to length of time
Only 1.8 million species identified
Little known about nature and ecological roles of species identified
Document little changes in DNA
Suggests species survive for 1 to 10 million years before going extinct.
On average, 90% loss of habitat results in a 50% loss of species living in that habitat.
9-2 Why Should We Care about Preventing Premature Species Extinction?
We should prevent the premature extinction of wild species because of the economic and ecological services they provide and because they have a right to exist regardless of their usefulness to us.
“It will take 5-10 million years for natural speciation to rebuild the biodiversity we are likely to destroy during your lifetime.”Slide18
Species Are a Vital Part of the Earth’s Natural Capital
– usefulness to us in providing ecological and economic services.
: wildlife tourism
Loss in diversity of crop species is cause for concern.
Food crops, recreation, scientific information, lumber, paper, etc.
Energy flow, nutrient cycling, and population control—the scientific principles of sustainability that sustain and support life on earth.Slide19
Natural capital degradation: endangered orangutans in a tropical forest. In 1900, there were over 315,000 wild orangutans. Now there are less than 20,000 and they are disappearing at a rate of over 2,000 per year because of illegal smuggling and clearing of their forest habitat in Indonesia and Malaysia to make way for oil palm plantations. An illegally smuggled orangutan typically sells for a street price of $10,000. According to 2007 study by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), projected climate change will further devastate remaining orangutan populations in Indonesia and Malaysia. Question: How would you go about trying to set a price on the ecological value of an orangutan?Slide20
Figure 9.8Natural capital: nature’s pharmacy. Parts of these and a number of other plant and animal species (many of them found in tropical forests) are used to treat a variety of human ailments and diseases. Nine of the ten leading prescription drugs originally came from wild organisms. About 2,100 of the 3,000 plants identified by the National Cancer Institute as sources of cancer-fighting chemicals come from tropical forests. Despite their economic and health potential, fewer than 1% of the estimated 125,000 flowering plant species in tropical forests (and a mere 1,100 of the world’s 260,000 known plant species) have been examined for their medicinal properties. Once the active ingredients in the plants have been identified, they can usually be produced synthetically. Many of these tropical plant species are likely to become extinct before we can study them.Slide21
Figure 9.9Many species of wildlife, such as this endangered scarlet macaw in Brazil’s Amazon rain forest, are a source of beauty and pleasure. These and other colorful species of parrots can become endangered when they are removed from the wild and sold (sometimes illegally) as pets.Slide22
Science Focus: Using DNA to Reduce Illegal Killing of Elephants for Their Ivory
1989 international treaty against poaching elephants
Poaching on the rise
Track area of poaching through DNA analysis of elephants
Elephants damaging areas of South Africa: Should they be culled? Slide23
Are We Ethically Obligated to Prevent Premature Extinction?
Species have an inherent right to exist and play their ecological roles, regardless of their usefulness to us.
Edward O. Wilson:
Science Focus: Why Should We Care about Bats?
Vulnerable to extinction
Slow to reproduce
Human destruction of habitats
Important ecological roles
Feed on crop-damaging nocturnal insects
Unwarranted fears of batsSlide25
9-3 How do Humans Accelerate Species Extinction?
The greatest threats to any species are (in order) loss or degradation of its habitat, harmful invasive species, human population growth, pollution, climate change, and overexploitation. Slide26
Loss of Habitat Is the Single Greatest Threat to Species: Remember HIPPCO (1)
abitat destruction, degradation, and fragmentation
nvasive (nonnative) species
opulation and resource use growth
NATURAL CAPITAL DEGRADATION
• Population growth
• Rising resource use
• Undervaluing natural capital
• Habitat loss
• Commercial hunting and poaching
• Habitat degradation and fragmentation
• Climate change
• Sale of exotic pets and decorative plants
• Introduction of nonnative species
• Predator and pest control
Causes of Depletion and Premature Extinction of Wild Species
Underlying and direct causes of depletion and premature extinction of wild species (
). The major direct causes of wildlife depletion and premature extinction are habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation. This is followed by the deliberate or accidental introduction of harmful invasive (nonnative) species into ecosystems.Slide28
Natural capital degradation:
reductions in the ranges of four wildlife species, mostly as the result of habitat loss and hunting. What will happen to these and millions of other species when the world’s human population doubles and per capita resource consumption rises sharply in the next few decades?
Would you support expanding these ranges even though this would reduce the land available for people to grow food and live on? Explain. (Data from International Union for the Conservation of Nature and World Wildlife Fund)Slide29
Loss of Habitat Is the Single Greatest Threat to Species: Remember HIPPCO (2)
Globally, habitat loss, greatest in temperate biomes, pace picking up in tropics.
Hawaii, the extinction capital of America—63% of species at risk.
The Bali Mynah is distributed and endemic to the island of Bali, where it is the island's only surviving endemic species. This rare bird was discovered in 1910 and is one of the world's most critically endangered birds. In fact, it has been hovering immediately above extinction in the wild for several years.Slide30
Science Focus: Studying the Effects of Forest Fragmentation on Old-Growth Trees
Tropical Biologist Bill
How large must a forest fragment be in order to prevent the loss of rare trees?
Case Study: A Disturbing Message from the Birds (1)
70% of the worlds 10,000 birds are declining; 12% are threatened with extinction.
Habitat loss and fragmentation of the birds’ breeding habitats
Forests cleared for farms, lumber plantations, roads, and development
Intentional or accidental introduction of nonnative species
Eat the birdsSlide32
One in every eight bird species (12%) is threatened with extinction. Three-fourths live in forests.
75% of birds species
Sumatra’s lowland forests
palm plantations, used for
115 bird species
of rainforests for farms and ranches; 93% loss of Atlantic coastal rainforest; clearing of savannah-like
for soybean plantations
30% of bird species, 70% of grassland species
Habitat loss and fragmentation of breeding habitat;
replaced by roads and other developments.
Introduction of non-native
52 of 388 parrot species
from commercial fishing; pollution
waterbirdsWorldwideLoss of wetlandsSlide33
Case Study: A Disturbing Message from the Birds (2)
Seabirds caught and drown in fishing equipment
Migrating birds fly into power lines, communication towers, and skyscrapers
Ingestion of toxic lead shotgun pelletsSlide34
Case Study: A Disturbing Message from the Birds (3)
Greatest new threat: Climate change
Live in every climate and biome
Respond quickly to environmental changes
Easy to track
Economic and ecological servicesSlide35
Figure 9.12Distribution of bird species in North America and Latin America. Question: Why do you think more bird species are found in Latin America than in North America? (Data from The Nature Conservancy, Conservation International, World Wildlife Fund, and Environment Canada).Slide36
Florida scrub jay
The 10 most threatened species of U.S. songbirds. Most of these species are vulnerable because of habitat loss and fragmentation from human activities. An estimated 12% of the world’s known bird species may face premature extinction due mostly to human activities during this century. (Data from National Audubon Society)Slide37
Science Focus: Vultures, Wild Dogs, and Rabies: Unexpected Scientific Connections
Vultures poisoned from
in cow carcasses
More wild dogs eating the cow carcasses
More rabies spreading to peopleSlide38
Some Deliberately Introduced Species Can Disrupt Ecosystems
Most species introductions are beneficial.
Nonnative species may have no natural enemies.
Some of the more than 7,100 harmful invasive (nonnative) species that have been deliberately or accidentally introduced into the United States.Slide40Slide41
Case Study: The Kudzu VineImported from Japan in the 1930s to control soil erosion.
“ The vine that ate the South”
Could there be benefits of kudzu? Slide42
Kudzu Taking Over an Abandoned House in Mississippi, U.S.Slide43
Some Accidentally Introduced Species Can Also Disrupt Ecosystems
Argentina fire ant: 1930s
Pesticide spraying in 1950s and 1960s worsened conditions
Wiped out competitor ant species and made them more pesticide resistant.
Burmese python Slide44
Figure 9.16The Argentina fire ant, introduced accidentally into Mobile, Alabama, in the 1930s from South America (green area), has spread over much of the southern United States (red area). This invader is also found in Puerto Rico, New Mexico, and California. Question: How might this accidental introduction of fire ants have been prevented? (Data from S. D. Porter, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture)Slide45
Prevention Is the Best Way to Reduce Threats from Invasive Species
Prevent them from becoming established
Learn the characteristics of the successful invader species and the types of ecosystems that are vulnerable to invasion.
Inspection of imports.
Ballast water from cargo ships.
Set up research programs to try to find natural ways to control them: predators, parasites, bacteria and viruses.
Ground surveys and satellite observations to detect and monitor invasions to develop better models for predicting spread.Slide46
Figure 9.17Some general characteristics of successful invader species and ecosystems vulnerable to invading species. Question: Which, if any, of the characteristics on the right-hand side could humans influence?Slide47
Figure 9.18Individuals Matter: ways to prevent or slow the spread of harmful invasive species. Questions: Which two of these actions do you think are the most important? Why? Which of these actions do you plan to take?Slide48
Other Causes of Species Extinction (1)Population growth
Other Causes of Species Extinction (2)Pesticides
DDT: Banned in the U.S. in 1972
DDT in fish-eating birds (ospreys)
DDT in large fish (needle fish)
DDT in small fish (minnows)
DDT in zooplankton 0.04 ppm
DDT in water 0.000003
, or 3
Case Study: Where Have All the Honeybees Gone?
Honeybees responsible for 80% of insect-pollinated plants
Dying due to?
Bee colony collapse syndrome Slide52
Case Study: Polar Bears and Global Warming
Environmental impact on polar bears
Less summer sea ice
Can adversely affect their development, behavior, and reproduction.
2006 Study: Population projected to decline by 30-35%, and may be found only in zoos by end of century.
2007 listed as threatened species
2008 listed as th
under US ESA.Slide53
Figure 9.20Polar bear with seal prey on floating ice in Svalbard, Norway. Polar bears in the Arctic are likely to become extinct sometime during this century because global warming is melting the floating sea ice on which they hunt seals.Slide54
Illegal Killing, Capturing, and Selling of Wild Species Threatens Biodiversity
Poaching and smuggling of animals and plants
Plants for landscaping and enjoyment
When commercially valuable species become endangered, black market prices soar.
: research and educationSlide55
Figure 9.21White rhinoceros killed by a poacher for its horn in South Africa. Question: What would you say if you could talk to the poacher of this animal?Slide56
The hyacinth macaw, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, may be worth $10 000 to an exotic bird collector, but worth $165 00 in tourist revenues left in the wild.Slide57
Individuals Matter: Jane GoodallPrimatologist and anthropologist
45 years understanding and protecting chimpanzees
Chimps have tool-making skillsSlide58
Rising Demand for Bush Meat Threatens Some African Species
Indigenous people sustained by
More hunters leading to local extinction of some wild
US Agency for International Development, trying to introduce alternatives in some areas.
Breeding large rodents, like cane rats.
Figure 9.22Bush meat, such as this severed head of a lowland gorilla in the Congo, is consumed as a source of protein by local people in parts of West Africa and sold in the national and international marketplace. You can find bush meat on the menu in Cameroon and the Congo in West Africa as well as in Paris, London, Toronto, New York, and Washington, D.C. It is often supplied by poaching. Wealthy patrons of some restaurants regard gorilla meat as a source of status and power. Question: How, if at all, is this different from killing a cow for food?Slide60
9-4 How Can We Protect Wild Species from Premature Extinction? (1)
We can use existing environmental laws and treaties and work to enact new laws designed to prevent species extinction and protect overall biodiversity.
We can help to prevent species extinction by creating and maintaining wildlife refuges, gene banks, botanical gardens, zoos, and aquariums. Slide61
9-4 How Can We Protect Wild Species from Premature Extinction? (2)
According to the
, we should take measures to prevent or reduce harm to the environment and to human health, even if some of the cause-and-effect relationships have not been fully established, scientifically. Slide62
International Treaties Help to Protect Species
1975: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES)
Signed by 172 countries
Convention on Biological Diversity (BCD)
Focuses on ecosystems
Ratified by 190 countries (not the U.S.)Slide63
Case Study: The U.S. Endangered Species Act (1)
Endangered Species Act (ESA): 1973 and later amended in 1982, 1983, and 1985
Identify and protect endangered species in the U.S. and abroad
Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP) colonySlide64
Case Study: The U.S. Endangered Species Act (2)Mixed reviews of the ESA
Confiscated Products Made from Endangered SpeciesSlide66
Science Focus: Accomplishments of the Endangered Species Act (1)
Species listed only when serious danger of extinction
Takes decades for most species to become endangered or extinct
More than half of the species listed are stable or improving
Budget has been smallSlide67
Science Focus: Accomplishments of the Endangered Species Act (2)
Suggested changes to ESA
Increase the budget
Develop recovery plans more quickly
Establish a core of the endangered organism’s survival habitatSlide68
We Can Establish Wildlife Refuges and Other Protected Areas
1903: Theodore Roosevelt
Most are wetland sanctuaries
More needed for endangered plants
Could abandoned military lands be used for wildlife habitats?Slide69
Gene Banks, Botanical Gardens, and Wildlife Farms Can Help Protect Species
Gene or seed banks
Preserve genetic material of endangered plants
Botanical gardens and arboreta
Farms to raise organisms for commercial saleSlide70
Zoos and Aquariums Can Protect Some Species (1)
Techniques for preserving endangered terrestrial species
Use of incubators
Zoos and Aquariums Can Protect Some Species (2)
Limited space and funds
Critics say these facilities are prisons for the organismsSlide72
What Can You Do? Protecting SpeciesSlide73
Case Study: Trying to Save the California Condor
Largest North American bird
Birds captured and breed in captivity
By 2007, 135 released into the wild
Threatened by lead poisoningSlide74
The Precautionary PrincipleSpecies: primary components of biodiversity
Preservation of species
Preservation of ecosystems
The Species Approach Chapter 9 Core Case Study The Passenger Pigeon Gone Forever Passenger pigeon hunted to extinction by 1900 Commercial hunters used a stool pigeon Geological record shows five mass extinctions ID: 585133 Download Presentation