Chapter 1 Crime and Criminal Justice - PowerPoint Presentation

Chapter 1 Crime and Criminal Justice
Chapter 1 Crime and Criminal Justice

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Developing the Criminal Justice System Urbanization in the East and expansion in the West led to the development of more formal criminal justice systems Citizens advocacy groups Chicago Crime Commission advocated for justice and oversaw criminal justice agencies ID: 671815 Download Presentation

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Slide1

Chapter 1

Crime and Criminal JusticeSlide2

Developing the Criminal Justice System

Urbanization in the East and expansion in the West led to the development of more formal criminal justice systems.

Citizens’ advocacy groups (Chicago Crime Commission) advocated for justice and oversaw criminal justice agencies.

The Wickersham Commission (1931) was the first complete analysis of the criminal justice system.Slide3

Developing the Criminal Justice System

The Modern Era of Justice

Research in the 1950’s (American Bar Foundation) found a disjointed system that was largely hidden from public scrutiny.

Recognized the need to integrate the components of the criminal justice system.Slide4

Developing the Criminal Justice System

Federal Involvement in Criminal Justice

In 1967, President Lyndon Johnson created the President’s Commission on Crime and Administration of Justice.

Their final report (

The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society

) identified numerous challenges in the criminal justice process.

In 1968, Congress passed the Safe Streets and Crime Control Act.

Provided funding at the local level for research and improvement of justice systems.Slide5

The Contemporary Criminal Justice System

The criminal justice system is society’s instrument of social control.

The criminal justice system responds to dangerous behavior.

Criminal justice agencies apprehend, adjudicate and sanction law breakers.

The criminal justice system resides in every branch (executive, judicial, and legislative) of government.Slide6

The Contemporary Criminal Justice System

The principal components of the criminal justice system are;

Law enforcement agencies that investigate crimes and apprehend suspects,

Court agencies that conduct trials and sentence offenders, and

Correctional agencies that monitor and rehabilitate offenders.Slide7

The Contemporary Criminal Justice System

The size and cost of criminal justice is staggering.

$200 billion annually, up more than 300 percent since 1982

18,000 law enforcement agencies employ 800,000 officers and support personnel.

17,000 courts and 8,000 prosecutorial agencies.

6,000 institutional corrections agencies and more than 3,500 probation and parole departments.Slide8

The Formal Criminal Justice Process

Initial contact

Investigation

Arrest

Custody

Charging

Preliminary hearing/grand jury

Arraignment

Bail/detention

Plea bargaining

Trial/adjudication

Sentencing/disposition

Appeal/post conviction

Correctional treatment

Release

PostreleaseSlide9

The Formal Criminal Justice Process

The Criminal Justice Assembly Line

Some view the criminal justice process as an assembly line in a factory.

Conveyer belt

Endless supply of cases

Others view it as a funnel.

Large number of cases entering the system

For numerous reasons cases exit the process

Leaving only relatively few cases that progress through the entire process.Slide10

The Informal Criminal Justice Process

Traditionally the process is viewed as a series of formal decision points.

In reality, cases are often settled informally through cooperative agreements.

Plea bargaining

Discretion

Desire to preserve resources for more serious cases.

The courtroom work groupSlide11
Slide12

The Informal Criminal Justice Process

The criminal justice system can be viewed as a four layer wedding cake.

Level one – Celebrated cases

Level two – Serious felonies

Level three – Less serious felonies

Level four – Misdemeanors

The smallest number of cases receive the most public attention.Slide13

Discussion

How are Level I cases different from the other levels? Take for example Charlie

Sheen, a popular actor…and a drug abuser who has been the subject of interest in repeated incidents of violence, destruction of property, and erratic behavior.

Form

small groups and

discuss the

perceptions of bias in the criminal justice system regarding issues of fame, wealth, or social status.

Identify

a student from within each group to summarize those perceptions.Slide14

Perspectives on Justice

There are a variety of perspectives on justice:

Crime Control Perspective

Rehabilitation Perspective

Due Process Perspective

Nonintervention Perspective

Equal Justice Perspective

Restorative Justice PerspectiveSlide15

Perspectives on Justice

Crime Control Perspective

Deter crime through the application of punishment.

The more efficient the system, the greater its effectiveness.

The justice system is not equipped to treat people but to investigate crimes, apprehend suspects, and punish the guilty.Slide16

Perspectives on Justice

Rehabilitation Perspective

Care for people who cannot manage themselves.

It is better to treat than to punish.

Criminals are society’s victims.

Helping others is part of the American culture.

Convicted criminals can be successfully treated. Slide17

Perspectives on Justice

Due Process Perspective

Provide fair and equitable treatment for the accused.

Every person deserves their constitutional rights and privileges.

Constitutional rights and democratic ideals take precedence over punishment.

Decisions must be carefully scrutinized to avoid errors.Slide18

Perspectives on Justice

Nonintervention Perspective

Criminal justice agencies should limit involvement with criminal defendants.

Labeling individuals as criminals is harmful and disruptive.

Stigmas lock people into a criminal way of life.

Decriminalize, divert, and deinstitutionalize.Slide19

Perspectives on Justice

Equal Justice Perspective

Equal treatment for equal crimes.

Decision making is standardized and structured by rules and regulations.

Individual discretion reduced and controlled.

Inconsistent treatment produces disrespect for the system.Slide20

Discussion

The News Channel

RTAmerica

discusses the criminal justice system. In light of high-profile criminal cases headlining America's TV screens - the Casey Anthony trial and the DSK case -- RT's Anastasia

Churkina

takes a look at the ties between the U.S. criminal justice system, the media and the court of public opinion.

How are the media, court, and public opinion related and/or independent from each other?Slide21

Perspectives on Justice

Restorative Justice Perspective

Offenders should be reintegrated back into society.

Coercive punishments are self-defeating

Justice system must become more humane.Slide22

Perspectives on Justice

Perspectives in Perspective

No single perspective is inherently just.

During the past decade the crime control and equal justice models have dominated.

Rehabilitation, due process, and the least-intrusive treatment have not been completely abandoned, only diminished.Slide23

Ethics in Criminal Justice

Justice personnel function in an environment where moral ambiguity is the norm.

Enormous power is granted to criminal justice employees.

Justice employees often have considerable discretion in decision making.Slide24

Ethics in Criminal Justice

Ethics in Law Enforcement

Police have authority to deprive people of their liberty.

Police serve as the interface between the power of the state and citizens it governs,

Most of what happens in policing is done far away from active supervision.Slide25

Ethics in Criminal Justice

Ethics in the Courts

Prosecutors have roles that sometimes conflict

Representing the people

Representing the court.

Ethics and corrections

Corrections workers have significant coercive and punitive power of incarcerated offenders.

Shom More....