BIODIVERSITY What is biodiversity?

BIODIVERSITY What is biodiversity? BIODIVERSITY What is biodiversity? - Start

2018-09-25 11K 11 0 0

Description

It is the variety of all the different living things and their homes on the planet. . BIO. . DIVERSITY. Bio= biological organisms . -living things!. diversity= the amount of variation. ID: 679110 Download Presentation

Embed code:
Download Presentation

BIODIVERSITY What is biodiversity?




Download Presentation - The PPT/PDF document "BIODIVERSITY What is biodiversity?" is the property of its rightful owner. Permission is granted to download and print the materials on this web site for personal, non-commercial use only, and to display it on your personal computer provided you do not modify the materials and that you retain all copyright notices contained in the materials. By downloading content from our website, you accept the terms of this agreement.



Presentations text content in BIODIVERSITY What is biodiversity?

Slide1

BIODIVERSITY

What is biodiversity?It is the variety of all the different living things and their homes on the planet

Slide2

BIO DIVERSITY

Bio= biological organisms

-living things!

diversity= the amount of variation

very

diverse=very

different!

Biodiversity:

the variation of biological organisms

Slide3

Biodiversity

Biodiversity is the variety or richness of life at all structural levels (molecular/genetic, species, ecosystem). It is an essential renewable resource. The current rate of biodiversity loss is comparable to previous extinction events.

Slide4

The

natural world is very complex, with many intricate relationships between species and habitats. We refer to them as food webs and food chains or eco systems. The

plants and animals rely in many ways on those on either side of them.

Why do we need Biodiversity?

Slide5

Biological diversity is important because of the way these relationships can combine to provide yet more variation in the living world.

Any human activity that diminishes this 'bio-diversity' could therefore impoverish our own quality of life, reduce the resources available to us and ultimately

jeopardize

the survival of our descendants.

Slide6

WHY IS BIODIVERSITY IMPORTANT?

Biodiversity provides us with:Natural Resources (food, water, wood, energy, and medicines)

Natural (Ecosystem) Services including: air and water purification, soil fertility, waste disposal, pest control

Aesthetic pleasure

Slide7

WHY IS BIODIVERSITY IMPORTANT?

An Earth rich in wildlife is a sign that it is a healthy planet for us to live on tooWhen we pollute the air, water and soil, we risk destroying biodiversity

Slide8

WHY IS BIODIVERSITY IMPORTANT?

Trees make oxygen for us to breath.Plants need insects for pollination.Animals and birds need to eat plants.

Some animals need to eat the animals that eat the plants!

But most importantly everything we use comes from nature!

Slide9

Some factors that affect the biodiversity of an area

Historical EventsTime

Habitat conditions

Habitat structure

Climate stabilityCompetitionPredatorsKeystone species

Disturbance

Slide10

“The decline of Earth’s biodiversity is an unintended consequence of multiple factors that have been enhanced by human activity. They can be summarized by the acronym

HIPPO

, with the order of the letters corresponding to their rank in destructiveness.”

H

Habitat loss

, including that caused by human-induced climate change.

I

Invasive species

(harmful aliens, including predators, diseases, and competitors that displace native species

P

Pollution

P

Population

, Human overpopulation to be exact, a root cause of the other four

factors

O

Overharvesting, Overuse

(hunting,

fishing, gathering)

Slide11

Slide12

Habitat loss/destruction

Habitat loss is the greatest

reason for biodiversity loss.

Habitat loss is due to:

Conversion

of natural areas to farms, houses,

etc

Fragmentation

of ecosystems by human activities, housing, transportation, agriculture etc.

Simplification

of genetic diversity and complex ecosystems by planting/selecting monocultures.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lacanja_burn.JPG

Slide13

Tropical forests are so important because they harbor at least 50%, and perhaps more, of world's biodiversity

Direct observations, reinforced by satellite data, documents that these forests are declining. Half of our tropical rain forests are GONE!!Loss is ~ 2% annually

Slide14

Invasive / Exotic Species

With our help, species have the ability to get virtually anywhere in the world

Invasive

, exotic species introduced from elsewhere outcompete native species because they:

Have no natural predators

Colonize

& reproduce quickly

Carry parasites & disease

Compete with native species

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Kudzu_on_trees_in_Atlanta,_Georgia.jpg

Slide15

Invasive species

Burmese pythons are large snakes native to Asia — over the past 11 years, however, they have been found in the wild in South Florida in great numbers and are known to be reproducing as well. These pythons either escaped from or were released by their owners.

Burmese pythons pose a risk to the ecosystems and the animals that live in them, including many including threatened and endangered species.

Slide16

Lionfish

In less than a decade, the Indo-Pacific lionfish has become widely established along the Southeast U.S. and Caribbean. Lionfish are presently invading the Gulf of Mexico and South America. Recent estimates of lionfish densities indicate that lionfish have surpassed some native species with the highest estimates reporting over 1,000 lionfish per acre in some locations.

Compete with native species

Monopolize food sources

Slide17

Pollution

Pollution (Oil spills, human agricultural waste, fertilization, pesticides, acid deposition, greenhouse gases

etc

) caused by human activities has a negative effect on biodiversity

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:AlfedPalmersmokestacks.jpg

Slide18

Slide19

Threats to Biodiversity

Toxic chemicals (PCB’s and dioxins) accumulate in fatty tissues

Slide20

Population, Human overpopulation that is.

7

Billion and counting. The expansion of human population and affluence, especially in the developing world harms natural ecosystems.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:World_population.svg

Slide21

Overharvesting, Overuse, Overexploitation

Overhunting, overfishing, destructive harvesting practices

(poison,

dynamite), illegal trade, exotic pet industry

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Fishing_down_the_food_web.jpg

Slide22

At $16,000 per pound, and $40,000 to $100,000 per horn, it is little wonder that some rhino species are down to only a few thousand individuals, with only a slim hope of survival in the wild

Slide23

The

BlobfishThe poor blobfish has the distinction of being far too easy a target for such an unimaginative name.

Despite sporting a most unusual look, the

blobfish

is in danger of extinction due to deep sea commercial fishing and the blobfish’s inherent lack of defense mechanisms. The blobfish dwells at depths of 800 meters or more, and its body is comprised of a gelatinous mass slightly less dense than seawater, allowing it to hover just above the seafloor, ingesting food as it drifts by.

Slide24

Exotic animal black market

The international animal trade is thriving, and smugglers are illegally hunting, buying and selling species ranging from Tigers to Turtles.Depending on the species, the animals are sold either alive or dead. Buyers are looking for strange animals for a plethora of reasons. Some seek exotic animals, such as big cats and rare parrots, for pets. Others believe that certain animal parts have medicinal properties.

Slide25

Slide26

Dodo’s &

Calvaria TreeThe seeds of the tree

Calvaria

major (also called the dodo tree), now found exclusively on the island of Mauritius (in Indian ocean), must pass through the abrasive gut of a large animal in order to germinate. *seed is similar to a peach seed*

None of the animals currently on Mauritius have that ability. The dodo was hunted to extinction in the late 17th century. It was probably was the bird that was able to break the seed coat down in its gut.

Some seeds, abraded, roughened, and excreted by dodos, germinated and grew. Today, no seeds germinate, and only 13 old trees now survive.Recently discovered that some species of turkeys can break the seed coat apart & the tree is making a

recovery 

Slide27

Humans

The blackfooted ferret was once very abundant in the western prairies. It preyed upon prairie dogs and used their burrows to nest in. Poisoning of prairie dogs (considered a pest) has greatly reduced their abundance, and the

blackfooted

ferret is now the

rarest mammal in North America

Slide28

Slide29

Other threats to biodiversity

Climate Change

Climate changes have been a cause of previous mass extinctions

Couple this with lower abundance, invasive species and other problems, a severe impact is likely from climate change

Climate change will also trigger additional biological responses (e.g. malaria in temperate places)

Slide30

indirect impactsAnother problem is the removal of top predators, which may cause the ‘ecological release’ of

mesopredators

Slide31

Threats to Biodiversity

“Snowballing” effect of the invasion of the alien root pathogen

Slide32

Threats to Biodiversity

“Snowballing” effect of the invasion of the alien root pathogen

Indirect effects

Slide33

Characteristics shared by many

endangered species include:

Low reproductive rate

Large

body size

Specialist

Specialized feeding habits

Specialized nesting and/or breeding areas

Fixed migratory patterns

Found in one place or region

Rare

Commercially valuable

Negative human interactions including attacks on people or livestock

Slide34

Most experts estimate the world's species diversity at

10 to 30 million, but that is very approximate. Only 1.4 million species are "known to science" -- meaning that they have been classified by a specialist.

Slide35

The

frilled shark is a unique animal, looking almost nothing like the sharks we are familiar with today. That is because the frilled shark is the only type of this ancient species left on Earth today. It has some resemblance to the characteristic head features of a shark, but its body descends into a shape like that of an eel, and scientists know very little about it. It can dwell in depths anywhere from 50-1500 meters, and preys on other shark species, squid, and deep sea fish.

Slide36

Global distribution

Biological diversity is greatest near the equator, and declines towards higher latitudes . Tropical rain forests are especially known for their exceptional diversity. Some locations known as "hotspots" harbor an unusually rich local diversity, perhaps because conditions favor evolutionary diversification.

Slide37

Group

Number of Described Species

Bacteria and blue-green algae 

4,760 

Fungi 

46,983

Algae

26,900Bryophytes (mosses and liverworts) 17,000 

Gymnosperms (conifers) 

750

Angiosperms (flowering plants) 

250,000 

Protozoans 

30,800 

Sponges 

5,000 

Corals and Jellyfish 

9,000 

Roundworms and earthworms 

24,000

Crustaceans 

38,000

Insects 

751,000 

Other Arthropods and minor invertebrates 

132,461

Mollusks

50,000 

Starfish 

6,100 

Fishes (teleosts) 

19,056 

Amphibians 

4,184

Reptiles

6,300 

Birds 

9,198 

Mammals 

4,170

Total

1,435,662

Slide38

Slide39

Important Laws Protecting Biodiversity

Lacey Act

(1900) forbids interstate commerce of illegally killed wildlife. Modifications of act prevent importing dangerous non-native species.

Endangered Species Act

(ESA) of 1973 makes it illegal to

kill, trap, uproot (plants), modify the habitat of, or engage in

commerce of an endangered species or its parts.

To designate a species as endangered or threatened, Fish

and Wildlife Service or National Oceanic and Atmospheric

Administration must:

List species

Designate critical habitat areas where species is found

Develop a recovery plan to help species survive and thrive

Slide40

The rich variety of the natural world that Charles Darwin memorably imagined as an "entangled bank", and that E. O. Wilson labeled "biodiversity", is in crisis. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) calculates that

one-fifth of mammals and nearly one-third of amphibians are threatened with extinction

. Some estimate that only

half of the species alive today will survive to 2100

. Others describe the pace of biodiversity loss as

100 times the rate of natural extinctions

. Less-diverse ecosystems are less productive, less stable and less robust. So loss of biodiversity may weaken ecosystems and make them more fragile, especially in the face of climate change, with grave consequences for food security, among other things.

Sara Abdulla,Chief Commissioning Editor, Nature March 2010

Slide41

Current Patterns of Global Endangerment

Best data on global endangerment are collated in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (

www.redlist.org

)

All species placed into one of 9 categories (3 primary categories: Critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable)To date,

only 2.5% of species evaluated (and 41% considered endangered)

Slide42

Current Pattern of Global Endangerment

Slide43

Slide44

Current Pattern of Global Endangerment…the US

Proportion of sp threatened in US

Slide45

Current Pattern of Global Endangerment

Threatened species in other countries

Unfortunately, many countries lack solid data on what and how many

species

are actually in troubleSome countries have a high proportion of the flora and fauna at riskE.g. Madagascar 80% of plants and 30% of vertebrates

Slide46

Madagascar

It broke away from the

Gondwana

supercontinent more than 160 million years ago. Over the course of time, the isolation of

Madagascar

allowed for the evolution of unique plants and animals. The country’s geographic seclusion has resulted in one of the most biodiverse nations on the planet, but it is also currently one of the most endangered.

Slide47

Current Pattern of Global Endangerment

Slide48

Current Pattern of Global Endangerment

What types of

species

are most vulnerable?

Through studies, we have determined there are ‘suites’ of characteristics that make some sp more vulnerable

E.g. large range requirements, narrow habitat range, rarity, low reproductive rate, extreme specialization or co-evolutionary dependencies

Slide49

Current Pattern of Global Endangerment

Top carnivores with low densities, large ranges, large body size, are often cited as being vulnerable to habitat degradation, as well as overexploitation

For marine animals, body size itself does not appear to be a problem, but is associated with another…

low reproductive rate

Slide50

Current Pattern of Global Endangerment

vent

sp

raptors

seabirds

bats

Island sp

big cats

Slide51

Current Pattern of Global Endangerment

At the other end of the economic spectrum, billions live in poverty1B < $1/day

2.7B < $2/day

As a result, unsustainable levels of burning, small-scale agriculture, grazing and

bushmeat hunting occur wherever these practices help people survive

Slide52

Deforestation

Although deforestation meets some human needs, it also has profound, sometimes devastating, consequences, including social conflict, extinction of plants and animals, and climate change—challenges that aren’t just local, but global

Slide53

When an area is completely deforested for farming, the farmer typically burns the trees and vegetation to create a fertilizing layer of ash.

After this slash-and-burn deforestation, the nutrient reservoir is lost, flooding and erosion rates are high, and soils often become unable to support crops in just a few years. If the area is then turned into cattle pasture, the ground may become compacted as well, slowing down or preventing forest recovery.

Slide54

Consequences of the unsustainable and illegal commercial trade in wildlife species known as the

bushmeat trade include biodiversity loss, compromised ecosystem services, and increased incidents of zoonotic diseases

Slide55

Current Pattern of Global Endangerment

Solutions will include: Establishing protected areas

Targeted interventions at the genetic, species, and ecosystems levels

Restoration of damaged ecosystems

Recovery of endangered speciesCreation of sustainable forms of development

Slide56

The worst thing that can happen…. is not energy depletion, economic collapse, limited nuclear war, or conquest by a totalitarian government. As terrible as these catastrophes would be for us, they can be repaired within a few generations. The one process ongoing … that will take millions of years to correct is the loss of genetic and species diversity by the destruction of natural habitats. This is the folly that our

descendents are least likely to forgive us.

- E.O. Wilson, 1985

Slide57

Only if we understand, can we care. Only if we care, we will help. Only if we help, shall they be saved.”

~ Jane Goodall


About DocSlides
DocSlides allows users to easily upload and share presentations, PDF documents, and images.Share your documents with the world , watch,share and upload any time you want. How can you benefit from using DocSlides? DocSlides consists documents from individuals and organizations on topics ranging from technology and business to travel, health, and education. Find and search for what interests you, and learn from people and more. You can also download DocSlides to read or reference later.