Demand for bees drives up rental fees for hives - Description
Lock in of bee decline. To meet increasing demand, beekeepers continually replace lost and diseased colonies. Incentive to do this is high rental fees . Bees (and beekeepers) have to work harder. This promotes conditions for more bee decline. ID: 307262 Download Presentation
Lock in of bee decline. To meet increasing demand, beekeepers continually replace lost and diseased colonies. Incentive to do this is high rental fees . Bees (and beekeepers) have to work harder. This promotes conditions for more bee decline.
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Presentation on theme: "Demand for bees drives up rental fees for hives"— Presentation transcript:
Demand for bees drives up rental fees for hives
Lock in of bee decline
To meet increasing demand, beekeepers continually replace lost and diseased coloniesIncentive to do this is high rental fees Bees (and beekeepers) have to work harderThis promotes conditions for more bee decline
Lock in of bee decline
What is the next step in this sequence of events?
Demand for luxury crops and potential profit
More farmers plant and grow bee-dependent crops in large monocultures
Fewer weeds and wildflowers; more pesticides
Bees work harder
Ongoing declines in honey bees
Declining crop yields per acre
Also, as more land is converted, greater reductions in native pollinators and even more enhancement of dependency on honey bees
Lock in of bee decline
Only honey bees
Native bees and
Role of neonicotinoids in bee decline is more complicated
Negative impacts of neonics dependent upon mode of dosingDust release from planting of neonicotinoid seeds is highly toxicSublethal exposures thru pollen and nectar hard to quantify but can cause mortality Proximity of neonic crops does not mean that bees are feeding on it (dilution effect).Honey bees exposed to many other chemicalsWild bees may be more impacted than honey bees (why?)
Role of neonicotinoids is more complicated
This is why. Honeybees
have larger colony sizes, which
sustain higher losses of foraging bees before showing overall health effects.
Yet this suggests
issue. Honey bees
organism used in toxicity testing for pesticides.
could explain why
studies have not detected negative
effects of neonicotinoids on bees. Worse, this may
also mean that native insects may be more greatly impacted.
Current large-scale hive losses have historic precedents
(Underwood and vanEngelsdorp, 2007)
Multiple types of CCD occurring
Historic bee die offs occurred before varroa mite and before neonicotinoids
In the winter of 2010-2011, the vast majority (>70%) of reported colony losses were not attributed to CCD, as most dead colonies were not missing bee cadavers in the hive or apiary —the hallmark symptom of CCD.
Status of the queen, forage availability, varroa mite are bigger challenge to beekeepers than CCD
Day-to-day factors more important
A greedy reductionist strategy also obscures:
The importance of other animal pollinators besides honey bees
1. Obscures the role of other animal pollinators
Three-quarters of global food crops rely on a broad group animal pollinators. Honey bees are important pollinators for only a third of North American crops 4000 native bee species in North America
Status of Pollinators in North America
Long-term population declines for several wild bee species (notably bumble bees), and some butterflies, bats and hummingbirds Paucity of long-term population data and incomplete knowledge of taxonomy and ecology make definitive assessment of status difficult.
Status of bee and flower-visiting wasp species in United Kingdom
Need to address wild pollinator decline
During past 50 years, animal-pollinator dependent agriculture and number of honey bee hives have increased 300% and 45% respectivelyThese numbers also suggest renewed emphasis of practices that reverse declines in richness and abundance of wild pollinators
CCD as opportunity
CCD has brought attention to bees and beekeepingBeekeeping skills now being passed on to younger generation
CCD has catalyzed awareness and promotion of commodity chains for fair trade and organic honey
Monofloral honeys produced by local, artisanal beekeepers sought after and sold at higher prices
Forest honeys produced by local beekeepers in rural Veracruz state, Mexico
Beekeeping can also be promoted as form of development
A response to CCD
A three-fold response to CCD
Need to address more causally stable factors with broad policiesNeonicotinoidsEvidence is on the balance negative - they are having a detrimental impact on bees and other insects and animalsHowever, their banning may result in the use of older potentially problematic pesticides for which pests have developed resistance
More contingent causes require more contextual approach – no single quick fix possibleAddress systemic issues arising from economic context – why are we so dependent upon honey bees and how can we lessen this dependence?
Electron micrograph of acute paralysis virus (APV)