The Clinical Laboratory - PowerPoint Presentation

 The  Clinical  Laboratory
 The  Clinical  Laboratory

The Clinical Laboratory - Description


Laboratory Organizational Divisions Anatomical Responsible for the analysis of tissues from the body including surgical specimens frozen sections biopsies cytological specimens amp autopsies ID: 774752 Download Presentation

Tags

blood laboratory amp red blood laboratory amp red collection common count cells hematology tubes cell volume serum plasma hemoglobin

Embed / Share - The Clinical Laboratory


Presentation on theme: " The Clinical Laboratory"— Presentation transcript


Slide1

The

Clinical

Laboratory

Slide2

Laboratory Organizational Divisions:

Anatomical

Responsible for the analysis of tissues from the body including surgical specimens, frozen sections, biopsies, cytological specimens & autopsies

Slide3

Laboratory Organizational Divisions: Department of Pathology

Anatomical

Cytology: looking for abnormal cells (

ie

, cancer)

Cytologic

specimens (tissue & body fluids)

Pap smears

Histology

Surgical specimens

Frozen sections

Biopsies

Autopsies

Cytogenetics

Genetic

testing (blood, amniotic fluid, tissue & bone marrow)

Slide4

Clinical Laboratory Organizational Chart

Slide5

Hematology

The study of the formed (cellular) elements of the blood for the purpose of making a diagnosis.

Slide6

Hematology

RBCs, WBCs and platelets are counted and classified

Uses whole

blood (blood as it comes from the client without

removing any

components)

Whole blood is obtained using a collection tube with an anticoagulant to prevent clotting

*Lavender

collection

tubes

*

Anticoagulant

EDTA

*

Requires immediate inversion of tube 8 times to

activate

Slide7

Hematology

Blood is analyzed as whole, plasma or serum

*

Plasma: liquid portion of blood from

a

specimen that has not been

allowed to

clot; contains

fibrinogen

*

Serum: specimen allowed to clot; no

fibrinogen

Slide8

Hematology

Complete

Blood Count (CBC)

White

blood cell (WBC) count

is a count of the actual number of white blood cells per volume of blood.

White

blood cell differential

looks at the types of white blood cells present. There are five different types of white blood cells, each with its own function in protecting us from infection.

Red

blood cell (RBC) count

is a count of the actual number of red blood cells per volume of blood. Both increases and decreases can point to abnormal conditions.

Hemoglobin

measures the amount of oxygen-carrying protein in the blood.

Hematocrit

measures the percentage of red blood cells in a given volume of whole blood.

Slide9

Hematology

Complete Blood Count (CBC)

most common whole blood

test continued:

The

platelet count

is the number of platelets in a given volume of blood. Both increases and decreases can point to abnormal conditions of excess bleeding or clotting.

Mean

corpuscular volume (MCV) is a measurement of the average size of your RBCs.

Mean

corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) is a calculation of the average amount of oxygen-carrying hemoglobin inside a red blood cell.

Mean

corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) is a calculation of the average concentration of hemoglobin inside a red cell.

Red

cell distribution width (RDW) is a calculation of the variation in the size of your RBCs.

Slide10

Coagulation Studies in Hematology

Coagulation

Studies (clotting times)

*

PT and PTT

*

Light Blue collection

tubes

*Anticoagulant used is sodium

citrate

*

Must be returned to the lab in

30

minutes

Slide11

Chemistry

Study of components in the blood including enzymes, hormones, electrolytes, chemicals or poisons

Slide12

Chemistry

Tests

performed on serum, plasma, urine and other body fluids

Serum

and plasma obtained by using the

centrifuge

*Must be completed within one hour of collection

*

Serum separator tubes contain gel

*Must allow specimen to clot completely prior to

centrifuge

*

Red

or tiger top

collection tub

es

Most automated area of the lab

Slide13

Chemistry

Chem

7 &

Chem

17

most common tests to assess general health; gives your doctor important

information

about the current status of your kidneys, blood sugar, and electrolyte and acid/base balance

Cardiac

enzymes

and

drug screening

also common

Slide14

Blood Bank

Blood collection, storage and preparation for blood transfusion *Red collection tubes additives will interfere

Slide15

Blood Bank

Blood typed and for blood group and Rh factor

Units

(pints) collected and tested for presence of blood-borne pathogens; stored for

transfusion

- 42 days: how long most donated red blood cells

can

be

stored

-

5 days: how long most donated platelets can be

stored

- 1 year: how long frozen plasma can be stored

Autologous

transfusion

*Donate your own blood for personal transfusion if

needed from

upcoming surgery, usually

beginning

3-5 weeks before procedure

Slide16

Blood Bank

Most Common Tests

Type

&

Crossmatch

= ABO, Rh

typing

and compatibility

Type

& Screen

= ABO, Rh typing

and

antibody screen

Group

& Type

= ABO and Rh

typing

Slide17

Serology (Immunology)

Evaluates the body’s immune response through the detection of antibodies to bacteria, fungi,

parasites

, and viruses and antibodies produces against body substances (autoimmunity)

Slide18

Serology (Immunology))

Most Common Tests

Anti-HIV

Hepatitis B Surface Antigen

VDRL for syphilis

Western blot confirms HIV

HCG = pregnancy

Red collection tubes

Slide19

Microbiology

Identification of pathogens, effective antibiotic therapy and infection control

Slide20

Microbiology

Culture & Sensitivity most common procedure = ID pathogen & most effective antibiotic

Bacteria

is

IDed

based on morphology

&

gram stain reactions

Types

of Specimens

Blood

Sputum

Wounds

Feces

Urine

GI tract

Throat

Slide21

Microbiology

Yellow

or clear glass collection

tubes

using sterile technique

Most

Common Tests

Blood culture

Culture & Sensitivity

Gram stain

Ova

& parasites

Slide22

Urinalysis

Detects disorders and infections of the kidney and metabolic disorders such as Diabetes and liver

disease through components present in the urineUrinalysis most common test

Slide23

Laboratory Management

Laboratory Director (Pathologist)

Credentials

Medical doctor (MD)

Functions

Anatomic pathology

Clinical pathology

Laboratory Manager (Administrator)

Credentials

Master’s degree and 5 or more years of laboratory experience

Functions

Technical and administrative management

Slide24

Clinical Laboratory Personnel

Medical Laboratory Scientist (MLS)

Bachelor of science degree (4 year)

Performs laboratory testing requiring independent judgment

Minimal supervision

Medical Laboratory Technician (MLT)

Associate degree (2 year)

Performs laboratory testing by protocol under supervision

Phlebotomist (PBT)

High school diploma

Phlebotomy training program

Sample collection and processing

Shom More....
ellena-manuel
By: ellena-manuel
Views: 0
Type: Public

Download Section

Please download the presentation from below link :


Download Presentation - The PPT/PDF document " The Clinical Laboratory" is the property of its rightful owner. Permission is granted to download and print the materials on this web site for personal, non-commercial use only, and to display it on your personal computer provided you do not modify the materials and that you retain all copyright notices contained in the materials. By downloading content from our website, you accept the terms of this agreement.

Try DocSlides online tool for compressing your PDF Files Try Now