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Nonny de la Pen a Annenberg School for Communications and Journalism University of Southern California Los Angeles California Peggy Weil Interactive Media Division School of Cinematic Arts Universi

SanchezVives Systems Neuroscience and EVENT Lab IDIBAPS Barcelona Spain and Institucio 57515 Catalana de Recerca I Estudis Avanc 57528ats ICREA Barcelona Spain Mel Slater EVENT Lab Facultat de Psicologia Universitat de Barcelona Barcelona Spain and

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Nonny de la Pen a Annenberg School for Communications and Journalism University of Southern California Los Angeles California Peggy Weil Interactive Media Division School of Cinematic Arts Universi






Presentation on theme: "Nonny de la Pen a Annenberg School for Communications and Journalism University of Southern California Los Angeles California Peggy Weil Interactive Media Division School of Cinematic Arts Universi"— Presentation transcript:

Vol.19,No.4,August2010,2913012010bytheMassachusettsInstituteofTechnologyImmersiveJournalism:ImmersiveVirtualRealityfortheFirst-PersonExperienceofNewsAbstractThispaperintroducestheconceptanddiscussestheimplicationsofimmersivejour-nalism,whichistheproductionofnewsinaforminwhichpeoplecangainrst-personexperiencesoftheeventsorsituationdescribedinnewsstories.Thefunda-mentalideaofimmersivejournalismistoallowtheparticipant,typicallyrepresentedasadigitalavatar,toactuallyenteravirtuallyrecreatedscenariorepresentingthenewsstory.Thesenseofpresenceobtainedthroughanimmersivesystem(whetheraCaveorhead-trackedhead-mounteddisplays[HMD]andonlinevirtualworlds,suchasvideogamesandonlinevirtualworlds)affordstheparticipantunprece-dentedaccesstothesightsandsounds,andpossiblyfeelingsandemotions,thataccompanythenews.Thispapersurveyscurrentapproachestoimmersivejournal-ismandthetheoreticalbackgroundsupportingclaimsregardingavatarexperienceinimmersivesystems.Wealsoprovideaspecicdemonstration:givingparticipantstheexperienceofbeinginaninterrogationroominanoffshoreprison.Bybothde-scribingcurrentapproachesanddemonstratinganimmersivejournalismexperience,weopenanewavenueforresearchintohowpresencecanbeutilizedintheeldofnewsandnonction.1IntroductionInthispaperweintroducetheconceptofimmersivejournalism,whichistheproductionofnewsinaforminwhichpeoplecangainrst-personexperi-encesoftheeventsorsituationdescribedinnewsstories.Well-craftedjournal-ismalwaysaimstoelicitaconnectionbetweentheaudienceandthenewsstory.Creatingthatconnectionviadifferentkindsofimmersionhaslongbeenconsideredideal.DescribingherreportingduringWorldWarII,reporterMar-thaGellhorn(Gellhorn,1994)calleditTheviewfromtheground.WriterGeorgePlimpton(Plimpton,2003)actuallyjoinedtheDetroitLionsAmeri-canfootballteaminordertogivehisreadersthemostintimatesenseofplay-ingonthisteam.TelevisionnewscorrespondentWalterCronkitemadeaseriesofdocumentariesrecreatinghistoricaleventswherehewouldofferabriefin- conclusionsinSection7.2BackgroundInteractiveJournalism seriesofonlinegamesareanexampleoftheexpositorygenreofnewsgames.Whilethegameplayisadaptedfromanexistingmilitarythird-personshootergameen-gine,thescenesandmissionsarereenactmentsofbattlesfromthewarinIraqandAfghanistanbasedonnewsaccounts,interviews,andDODreports.KUMARealityGamespositionsitselfasjournalisticandtheirwebban- theusertodocuments,photographs,oraudiovisualfootageoftheactualstory,anditalsooffersanexperi-ence.WhentheSecondLifeusersavatariscaptured,thisissomethingpersonal,somethingthatisapartoftheuseroverwhichheorshehaslostcontrol,offeringperhapstheshadowofthetypeoffeelingthatmightbeassociatedwiththerealevents.Thistypeofinteractivejournalismreectsbasicele-mentsofwhatwearecallingimmersivejournalism.Inthenextsections,wediscussdeepimmersivejournalism,wheretheparticipantcanfeelthathisorheractualloca-tionhasbeentransformedtothelocationofthenews eventsarehappening,thentheyarehappeningtoyouandthereareverymanyexamplesintheliteratureofpeo-plerespondingrealisticallytovirtualsituationsandevents.Wementionedearlierthat,forexample,inordertograbsomething,youreachoutyourhandtowardit,employingaruleofSCsthatyouhaveknownsinceinfancy.Invirtualreality,supposeyoudonotseeyourhandmovingasyou thattheyshouldstopwhenevertheyfelttheneed.However,theywerenottoldthatthishadanythingtodowiththeGuantanamoBayprisonnewsstories.There positionthenthediscomfortfromthestresspositionshouldbefelt.Thus,theparticipantcouldevenhavethefeelingofbeinginacrouchedposition,withsomeoftheconcomitantsensations.Thefollowingarecommentsbythesethreeoftheparticipantsrelatingtothepointsabove.1.Beingthereandplausibilityleadtoarealisticre-IwasnervousbecauseIfeltIwaskidnappedorsomething,youdontknowwhatishappening.Iwasdenitelyexpectingtheattentiontoturntomeatsomepointwhichwasitselfsomewhatun-pleasant...Iwasexpectingsomethingunpleasanttohappentome,denitely.Itwasquiterealistic...Ifeltprettymuchtheenvironment,thesounds,theperspective.Ithoughtthattherewasgoingtobesomebi-zarrescenelikehittingorpunchingorsome-thing.Youseeafacesometimesinfrontofyousome-timesbyyoursideandyouthinkisthatme?Im thelimitationswementionfornaturalcontentstillapplytosuch3Daudio-videoexperiences,theyarecertainlynotlessrealthanvideo.Finally,weclaimthatthissamplingandpresentationtotheaudienceofaudiovisualmaterial,typicallyontwo-dimensionalscreenswithloweldofview,isbyitselfmisleading:whileobservingahumandisasterinanotherpartoftheworldbyTV,theviewersmaybemisledtoinferthattheyunderstandthehumansuffer-inginvolved.However,thefactisthattheyareonlyviewingandhearingalowresolution,sampled,dupli-cateofrealitythatdoesnotcatertoallsenses.Inthissense,traditionalmediacanbeclaimedtodepreciateandunderrepresentreality.Wethusclaimthatimmersivejournalism,byallowingformoreimmersiveexperiences,ifgeneratedaccordingtotheprinciplesadvocatedhereandusingethical,bestjournalisticpractices,constitutesamuchmorefaithfulduplicationofrealevents.Inotherwords,wesuggestthatRAIRshouldbecon-sideredaspartofthecriteriaforwell-craftedjournalism.7ConclusionsInthispaperwehavepresentedtheconceptofimmersivejournalism,andarguedthatvirtualrealitysystemsareuniquelyttedtodeliverrst-personex-periencesofstoriesthatappearinthenews;andthatimmersivejournalismofferstheopportunityofauniquelydifferentlevelofunderstandingcontrastedtoreadingtheprintedpageorpassivelywatchingau-diovisualmaterial.Wehavedistinguishedbetween Baudrillard,J.(1995).SimulacraandsimulationThebody, a,N.,&Weil,P.(2007).GoneGitmo.http://slurl.com/secondlife/Network%20Culture/227/78/25DOD.(2003).SecretORCONinterrogationlogdetainee063.Interrogationlog,USDepartmentofDefense,No-vember23,2002throughJanuary11,2003.Washington,DC:USDepartmentofDefense.Ehrsson,H.H.(2007).Theexperimentalinductionofout-of-bodyexperiences.Science,317(5841),10481048.Frasca,G.(2001).September12th.http://www.newsgaming.Gellhorn,M.(1994).Theviewfromtheground.