Dr. Kate Hefferon, PhD. URBAN WOOT. On the Couch Salons. Blacks Club. Vigor. “The sense of possessing physical strength, emotional energy and cognitive liveliness” . . (. Shirom. and . Shragra. ID: 438756
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VIGOUR:LETS GET PHYSICAL!
Dr. Kate Hefferon, PhD
On the Couch Salons
“The sense of possessing physical strength, emotional energy and cognitive liveliness”
, 2009, p. 1008).
Exercise has been ‘more popularized than popular’ (Berger et al., 1992 as cited in Hays, 1999, p. 7)
Do you exercise…on a regular basis…Why or why not?
Physical activity paradox:
alf would regard themselves as “inactive”
How do you compare?Slide5
Physical activity is defined as ‘any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure’Slide6
is defined as ‘a form of structured physical activity with a specific
objective of improving or maintain physical fitness or health’Slide7
1) Minimum of 30 (and up to 60) minutes of moderate-intensity exercise 5 days a week (150 minutes or 1000 kcal/week)2) The 30 minutes can be broken down into shorter sessions (3x10 mins) over the course of the day (Accumulation)3) Also, adults can choose to engage in 20-60 minutes of vigorous intensity exercise on three days a week (Garber et al., 2011; Hardman & Stensel, 2009, p. 274)
Resistance exerciseEach major muscle group on 2-3 days a week, with 2-3 sets (8-12 repetitions), creating increases in power and strengthOlder adults (and previously sedentary) engage in light to very light intensity in 15-20 reps There should be a 48-hour break between sessionsSlide9
Flexibility exerciseIn order to improve range of motion adults are recommended to conduct flexibility exercises (e.g. static, dynamic, ballistic and stretches) on at least 2-3 days a week.Stretches should be held in 10-30 second stints, and repeated 2-4 times (60 second in total per stretch)Neuromotor exerciseAdults should engage in Neuromotor exercise, which engage motor skills (e.g. tai chi and yoga) for 20-30 mins/day, 2-3 days a weekSlide10
The truth about exercise
When it comes to exercise ‘some is good; more is better’ (Garber et al., 2011, p. 1338)Greater physiological benefits from higher intensity trainingSitting for long periods of time over the day has been found to be dangerous to our health Although we may reach recommended daily guidelines, this doesn’t negate the detrimental effects of a sedentary work lifestyle (ACSM, 2012)Slide12
The known benefits
IndividualSocietyPhysical and psychological functioningPrevention of mental illness & diseaseSlide13
Reduces the risk of developing:ObesityCardiovascular disease Coronary heart diseaseStrokeDiabetes (type 2) OsteoporosisSleep disordersHigh blood pressureIncrease immune system functioning (J-shape relationship) (Hamer, 2012)Certain cancers (Colon, breast; rectal, lung, prostate, endometrial)Premature death (Salonen et al, 1983; Paffenbarger et al. 1986)Slide14
Enhanced positive emotion (Biddle & Mutrie, 2008; Hellmich, 2009; Mayo clinic; as cited in Rath & Harter, 2010; Reed & Buck, 2009; Reed & Ones, 2008)Reduced anxiety (McDonald & Hodgdon, 1991)Reduced depression and stress (Steptoe, Wardle, Pollard, Canaan, & Davies, 1996; Babyak et al., 2000; Hassmen, Koivula, & Uutela, 2000; Kritz-Silverstein, Barrett-Connor, & Corbeau, 2001)Enhanced body image, self-esteem and self-perceptions (Fox, 2000; Moses, Steptoe, Mathews, & Edwards, 1989)Improved general cognitive functioning (children, older adults) (Lautenshlager et al., 2008; Boutcher, 2000; Rejeski & Mihalko, 2001; Rejeski et al., 2001)Slide15
Why is it so hard?Slide16
Then and now…
Men and women average +12,500 steps/
(Tudor-Locke & Bassett, 2004
Majority of today <5000 steps/daySlide18
Is food to blame?
Does it matter?Slide20
How did it change you?Slide22
Ready For change?
1) Pre-contemplation: This stage represents when an individual is currently not engaged in physical activity and not even contemplating engaging at that point in time or in the near future. At this stage, the cons of engaging in activity far outweigh the pros (decisional balance).2) Contemplation: The individual is not engaging in activity but has contemplated the idea of starting to engage in such behaviours)3) Preparation: The individual has started to engage in small steps to start their behaviour changes (e.g. buying a membership, getting new trainers). The pros of engagement start to balance out the cons. 4) Action: The individual has started to engage in the desired level of activity and continues to do so for up to and les than 6 months)5) Maintenance: The individual continues their exercise regime and meets the criteria for being physically active for more than 6 months. The pros far outweigh the cons within this stage.
WHERE ARE YOU AT?
Marshmallows (Mischel, 1970)
Process by which we can seek to have control over thoughts, our feelings and impulsesSlide25
When people’s self-regulatory resources have been depleted, the non-optimal inner motivations exert a greater influence on behavior. The stronger the desire, the greater the releasing effect of ego depletion.” e.g. alcohol, restrained eating, prejudices, sexual infidelity, self presentation, etc. (Baumeister, Gailliot, DeWall & Oaten, 2006).Slide26
What can we do?
Evidence indicates that self-regulation functions like a muscle It gets tired right after use, but over time it can be strengthened
caffeine, alcohol and tobacco consumption
Routine, Routine, RoutineSlide28
Further Suggestions (based on research)
Find a buddy
Declare to the masses
Track tangible and measurable achievements
Be flexible and use accumulation
Make it a lifestyle, not a fadSlide29
A final note:
There are risks to participation
, hyperthermia and hypothermia, amenorrhea,
and suppression of immune
, the risks do not outweigh the benefits of participation for the majoritySlide30
References and Resources
BBC 2 Horizons- The truth about exercise
Biddle, S. J. H. and Mutrie, N. (2007) Psychology of Physical activity: Determinants, well-being and interventions (2nd ed.):
Acevedo, E. (2012). The Handbook of Exercise Psychology. Oxford University Press.Slide31
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