Plant Nutrition (Ch. 37) - PowerPoint Presentation

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Plant Nutrition (Ch. 37)
Plant Nutrition (Ch. 37)

Plant Nutrition (Ch. 37) - Description


Physiological adaptation Dogs pee on treesWhy dont trees pee on dogs NH 3 animal waste plant nutrient Nutritional needs Autotrophic does not mean autonomous plants need sun as an energy source ID: 785131 Download

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soil plant amp leaves plant soil leaves amp plants nutrient nutrients minerals organic nitrogen deficiency older growth air dry

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Slide1

Plant Nutrition

(Ch. 37)

Slide2

Physiological adaptation

Dogs pee on trees…Why don’t trees pee on dogs?

NH

3

animal waste

plant nutrient

Slide3

Nutritional needs

Autotrophic does not

mean

autonomous

plants need…

sun

as an energy sourceinorganic compounds as raw materialswater (H2

O)CO2minerals

Slide4

Macronutrients

Plants require these nutrients in relatively large amountsC, O, H, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S

Slide5

For what & from where?

C

macromolecule synthesis

CO

2

O

macromolecule synthesis

CO

2

H

macromolecule synthesis & proton pumps

H

2

O

N

protein & nucleic acid synthesis

soil

P

nucleic acids, ATP, phospholipids

soilKstomate control, water balancesoilCacell wall & membrane structure, regulationsoilMgchlorophyllsoilSproteins, enzymessoil

to make all plant proteins

establish a strong root system in young plants, growth

Flowers, absorption of water, strong roots, root crops (ie. carrots)

Cell walls, nutrient and soil conditioner

Slide6

Local Long Island soil issues

Granite

Acid soils bind up

mineral ions

pH by adding lime

Quartz

silica based soils

- low in P

- can be acid

Slide7

Micronutrients

Plants require in very small amountsCl, Fe, Mn, Bo, Zi, Ni, Mb

primarily cofactors for enzyme function

Slide8

Nutrient deficiencies

Lack of essential nutrients

exhibit specific symptoms

dependent on

function of nutrient

dependent on

solubility of nutrient

Slide9

Mineral deficiency symptoms depend not only on the role of the nutrient but also on its mobility within the plant. If a nutrient moves about freely, symptoms will show up first in older organs because young, growing tissues have more “drawing power” for nutrients in short supply. For example, magnesium is relatively mobile and is shunted preferentially to young leaves. Therefore, a plant starved for magnesium will show signs of chlorosis first in its older leaves. The mechanism for preferential routing is the source–to–sink translocation in phloem as minerals move along with the sugars to the growing tissues. In contrast, a deficiency of a mineral that is relatively immobile will affect young parts of the plant first. Older tissues may have adequate amounts, which they are able to retain during periods of short supply. For example, iron does not move freely within a plant, and an iron deficiency will cause yellowing of young leaves before any effect on older leaves is visible.

Deficiencies of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium are most common. Shortages of micronutrients are less common and tend to occur in certain geographic regions because of differences in soil composition. The symptoms of a mineral deficiency are often distinctive enough for a plant physiologist or farmer to diagnose its cause

Slide10

Magnesium deficiency

Symptomschlorosis = yellowing of leavesWhy?

What is magnesium’s function?

Take 2

fertilizer pellets

& call me in

the morning

Slide11

Chlorophyll

Why does magnesium deficiency cause chlorosis?

The chlorosis shows up in older leaves first, because plant moves Mg

+

to newer leaves. Why?

Slide12

The role of soils

Plants are dependent on soil quality

texture / structure

relative amounts of various sizes of soil particles

composition

organic & inorganic chemical components

fertility

Agronomists

really dig dirt

!

Slide13

Importance of organic matter

Topsoilmost important to plant growth

rich in

organic matter

humus

decomposing organic material

breakdown of dead organisms, feces, fallen leaves & other organic refuse by bacteria & fungi improves soil texturereservoir of minerals

organisms1 tsp. of topsoil has ~5 billion bacteria living with fungi, algae, protists, insects, earthworms, nematodes

So don’t rake

your lawn or

bag your leaves

Slide14

Soil health as a global issue

Not taking care of soil health has far-reaching, damaging

consequences

1920’s Dust Bowl

lack of soil conservation

growing the same crop

year after year (wheat)grazing by cattlebare ground exposed to wind erosion in winter

drought

Slide15

Soil health as a global issue

Soil conservation & sustainable agriculture

maintaining healthy environment

sustainable production of food supply

economically viable farming industry

contour plowing

crop rotation

“A sustainable agriculture does not deplete soils or people.”

– Wendell Berry

cover crops

Slide16

Slide17

Fertilizers

“Organic” fertilizers

manure, compost, fishmeal

“Chemical” fertilizers

commercially manufactured

N-P-K (ex. 15-10-5)

15% nitrogen10% phosphorus 5% potassium

What are the

political, economic,

environmental

issues?

Your next Current event!

Slide18

Nitrogen uptake

Nitrates

plants can only take up nitrate (NO

3

-

)

Nitrogen cycle by bacteriatrace path of nitrogen fixation

!What will the plant use N for?

root

Slide19

Soybean root nodules

N fixation by

Rhizobium

bacteria

symbiotic relationship

with bean family (legumes)

Slide20

Increasing soil fertility

Cover cropsgrowing a field of plants just to

plow them under

usually a legume crop

taking care of soil’s health

puts nitrogen back in soil

erosion control, too

A farmer…

outstanding

in his field?

Plow it under?

Why would you

that?

Slide21

2006-2007

Some plant oddities…

Slide22

Parasitic plants

tap into host plant vascular system

Indian pipe

Mistletoe

Slide23

Plants of peat bogs

High acid environmentmost minerals & nutrients bound up & are not available to plantsmust find alternative sources of nutrients

Slide24

Carnivorous

plants

Are they really carnivores?

Pitcher plant

Venus fly trap

Sundew

Slide25

Pitcher plant

Slide26

Uses of peat

Slide27

Any Questions??

Slide28

Review Questions

0

Slide29

1. The inorganic compound that contributes most of the mass to a plant’s organic matter is

*

H

2

O.

CO

2.NO32

.O2.

C

6

H

12

O

6

.

Slide30

2.

You are conducting an experiment on plant growth. You take a plant fresh from the soil and it weighs 5 kg. Then you dry the plant overnight and determine the dry weight to be 1 kg. Of this dry weight, how much would you expect to be made up of inorganic minerals?50 grams

500 grams

1 kg

4 kg

5 kg

Slide31

we can rule out C, D ,  and E   and because the dry weight of any plant is going to be mostly  cellulose ( a polymer of glucose)  we can pretty much be assured half of the  dry weight is not going to be from inorganic minerals and ions.  The only choice that makes any sense at all is 50grams.  No calculations needed

Slide32

This figure shows the results of a study to determine the effect of soil air spaces on plant growth. Use these data to answer the following question.

Slide33

3. The best explanation for the shape of this growth response curve is that

the plant requires air in the soil for photosynthesis. the roots are able to absorb more nitrogen (N

2

) in high levels of air.

most of the decrease in weight at low air levels is due to transpiration from the leaves.

increased soil air produces more root mass in the soil but does not affect the top stems and leaves.

the roots require oxygen for respiration and growth.

Slide34

4. Carnivorous plants have evolved mechanisms that trap and digest small animals. The products of this digestion are used to supplement the plant's supply of

energy.carbohydrates.

lipids and steroids.

minerals.

water.

Slide35

Are some essential elements more important than others? Explain.

No, because even though macronutrients are required in greater amounts, all essential elements are necessary for the plant to complete its life cycle.

Slide36

Can a single leaf be used to diagnose all of a plant’s mineral deficiencies? Explain.

a. No, because deficiencies of nutrients that are more mobile show up first in older leaves, whereas deficiencies in nutrients that are less mobile show up first in younger leaves.

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