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Anesthesia for Orthopedic Surgery

Dr . abdollahi. 11/26/2011. 1. Many orthopedic surgical procedures lend themselves to the use of . regional anesthesia . (. intraoperative. anesthesia and postoperative analgesia.. 11/26/2011. 2. Anesthesia for orthopedic surgery requires an understanding of .

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Anesthesia for Orthopedic Surgery






Presentation on theme: "Anesthesia for Orthopedic Surgery"— Presentation transcript:

Slide1

Anesthesia for Orthopedic Surgery

Dr abdollahi

11/26/2011

1Slide2

Many orthopedic surgical procedures lend themselves to the use of

regional anesthesia (intraoperative anesthesia and postoperative analgesia.

11/26/2011

2Slide3

Anesthesia for orthopedic surgery requires an understanding of

special positioning requirements (risk of peripheral nerve injury), appreciation of the possibility of large intraoperative

blood loss and techniques to limit the impact of this occurrence (intraoperative hypotension, salvage techniques).

11/26/2011

3Slide4

T

he risk of venous thromboembolism (emphasizing the need for the anesthesiologist to consider the interaction of anticoagulants and

antiplatelet drugs with anesthetic drugs or techniques, especially regional anesthesia).

11/26/2011

4Slide5

Preoperative Assessment

.A brief neurologic examination with documentation of any pre-existing deficits is recommended.

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5Slide6

Pre-Existing Medical Problems

Coronary artery disease (perioperative β blockade should be considered)

Rheumatoid arthritis (steroid therapy, airway management)Physical Examination

Mouth opening or neck extension

Evidence of infection and anatomic abnormalities at proposed sites for introduction of regional anesthesia (peripheral techniques may be acceptable if a regional technique is contraindicated)

A

rthritic changes and limitations to positioning

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6Slide7

Choice of Anesthetic Technique

Advantages of Regional versus General Anesthesia for Orthopaedic Surgical Procedures

Improved postoperative analgesia

Decreased incidence of nausea and vomiting

Less respiratory and cardiac depression

Improved perfusion because of sympathetic nervous system block

Decreased

intraoperative

blood loss

Decreased blood pressure

Blood flow redistribution to large caliber vessels

Locally decreased venous pressure

11/26/2011

7Slide8

Surgery to the Spine

Spinal Cord Injuries Spinal cord injuries must be considered in any patient who has experienced trauma. (Cervical spine injuries are associated with head and thoracic injuries, and lumbar spine injuries are associated with abdominal injuries and long bone fractures.)

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8Slide9

Tracheal Intubation

Airway management is critical because the most common cause of death with acute cervical spinal cord injury is respiratory failure.

All patients with severe trauma or head injuries should be assumed to have an unstable cervical fracture until proven otherwise

radiographically

.

Awake

fiberoptic

-assisted intubation may be necessary, with general anesthesia induced only after voluntary upper and lower extremity movement is confirmed.

In a truly emergent situation, oral intubation of the trachea with direct

laryngoscopy

(minimal flexion or extension of the neck) is the usual approach.

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9Slide10

Respiratory considerations

Respiratory considerations include an inability to cough and clear secretions, which may result in atelectasis and infection.

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10Slide11

Cardiovascular considerations

Cardiovascular considerations are based on loss of sympathetic nervous system innervation (“spinal shock”) below the level of spinal cord transection. (

Cardioaccelerator fiber [T1–T4] loss results in bradycardia and possible absence of compensatory tachycardia if blood loss occurs.)

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11Slide12

Succinylcholine-Induced Hyperkalemia

Succinylcholine-Induced Hyperkalemia It is usually safe to administer

succinylcholine (Sch) within the first 48 hours after spinal cord injury. It should be avoided after 48 hours in all patients with spinal cord injuries.

11/26/2011

12Slide13

Temperature Control

Loss of vasoconstriction below the level of spinal cord transection causes patients to become poikilothermic. (Body temperature should be maintained by increasing ambient air temperature and warming intravenous [IV] fluids and inhaled gases).

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13Slide14

Maintaining Spinal Cord Integrity

.An important component of anesthetic management is preservation of spinal cord blood flow. (Perfusion pressure should be maintained, and extreme hyperventilation of the lungs should be avoided.) Neurophysiologic monitoring (somatosensory or motor evoked potentials), a “wake-up test,” or both are used to recognize neurologic ischemia before it becomes irreversible.

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14Slide15

Autonomic Hyperreflexia

Occurs in 85% of patients with spinal cord transection above T5

Paroxysmal hypertension with bradycardia (baroreceptor

reflex)

Cardiac

dysrhythmias

Cutaneous

vasoconstriction below and

vasodilation

above the level of

transection

Precipitated by any noxious stimulus (distention of a hollow

viscus

)

Treatment is removal of stimulus, deepening of anesthesia, and administration of a vasodilator

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15Slide16

Scoliosis

11/26/2011

16Slide17

Pulmonary Considerations

Postoperative ventilation of the patient's lungs is likely to be necessary if the vital capacity is below 40% of the predicted value. Prolonged arterial hypoxemia,

hypercapnia, and pulmonary vascular constriction may result in right ventricular hypertrophy and irreversible pulmonary hypertension.

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17Slide18

Surgical Approach and Positioning.

The prone position is used for the posterior approach to the spine. (The hazards of the prone position, including brachial plexus stretch injury [the head should be rotated toward the abducted arm and the eyes taped closed], should be considered.

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18Slide19

The anterior approach is achieved with the patient in the lateral position, usually with the convexity of the curve uppermost. Removal of a rib may be necessary. A double-lumen

endotracheal tube is used to collapse the lung on the operative side.

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19Slide20

A combined anterior and posterior approach in one or two stages yields higher union rates but is associated with increased morbidity, including blood loss and nutritional deficits.

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20Slide21

Anesthetic Management

Respiratory reserve is assessed by exercise tolerance, vital capacity measurement, and arterial blood gas analysis.

Autologous blood donation is often recommended (usually ≥4 U can be collected in the month before surgery).

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21Slide22

There are specific anesthetic considerations for surgical correction of scoliosis by spinal fusion and instrumentation .

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22Slide23

Anesthetic Considerations for Surgical Correction of Scoliosis

Management of the prone position

Hypothermia (long procedure and extensive exposed area)

Extensive blood and fluid losses

Maintenance of spinal cord integrity

Prevention and treatment of venous air embolism

Reduction of blood loss through

hypotensive

anesthetic techniques

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23Slide24

Adequate hemodynamic monitoring and venous access are essential in the management of patients undergoing spinal fusion and instrumentation .

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24Slide25

Monitoring for Patients Undergoing Scoliosis Surgery

Cannulation

of radial artery (direct blood pressure measurement and assessment of blood gases)Central venous catheter (evaluates blood and fluid management and aspirate air if venous air embolism occurs)

Pulmonary artery catheter (pulmonary hypertension)

Neurophysiologic monitoring (prompt diagnosis of neurologic changes and early intervention)

Somatosensory

evoked potentials Motor evoked potentials Wake-up test

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25Slide26

Degenerative Vertebral Column Disease

Spinal stenosis, spondylosis, and spondylolisthesis are forms of degenerative vertebral column disease that may lead to neurologic deficits necessitating surgical intervention.

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26Slide27

Surgical Approach and Positioning

Cervical laminectomy

is most often performed with patients in the prone position (Fig. 53-1).

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27Slide28

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28

. Prone position with the patient's head turned and the dependent ear and eye protected from pressure. Chest rolls are in place, the arms are extended forward without hyperextension, and the knees are flexed.Slide29

Fiberoptic

-assisted intubation may be necessary in patients with severely limited cervical movement.The anterior approach places the surgical incision (anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle) near critical structures (carotid artery, esophagus, trachea [edema and recurrent nerve injury are possible]).

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29Slide30

The use of the sitting position for cervical

laminectomy allows a more blood-free surgical field but introduces the risk of venous air embolism. The incidence is less than for sitting posterior fossa craniotomy, but the patient still needs to be monitored with

precordial Doppler.

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30Slide31

Anesthetic Management

General anesthesia is most often selected for spinal surgery because it ensures airway access and is acceptable for prolonged operations. Patients undergoing cervical

laminectomy should be assessed preoperatively for cervical range of motion and the presence of neurologic symptoms during flexion, extension, and rotation of the head. (Awake

fiberoptic

intubation of the trachea may be necessary.)

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31Slide32

Sch

should be avoided if there is evidence of a progressive neurologic deficit.11/26/2011

32Slide33

Spinal Cord Monitoring

Paraplegia is a feared complication of major spine surgery. The incidence of neurologic injuries associated with scoliosis correction is 1.2%. When patients awaken with paraplegia, neurologic recovery is unlikely, although immediate removal of instrumentation improves the prognosis.

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33Slide34

It is therefore essential that any

intraoperative compromise of spinal cord function be detected as early as possible and reversed immediately. The two methods for detecting intraoperative compromise of spinal cord function are the “wake-up test” and neurophysiologic monitoring.

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34Slide35

wake-up

The wake-up test consists of intraoperative awakening of patients after completion of spinal instrumentation. Surgical anesthesia (often including opioids) and neuromuscular blockers are allowed to dissipate, and the patient is asked to move the hands and feet before anesthesia is re-established. Recall may occur but is rarely viewed as unpleasant, especially if the patient is fully informed before surgery.

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35Slide36

Neurophysiologic monitoring

Neurophysiologic monitoring (as an adjunct or an alternative to the wake-up test) includes :Somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) (waveforms may be altered by volatile anesthetics, hypotension, hypothermia,

hypercarbia),Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) (neuromuscular blocking drugs cannot be used),

Electromyography.

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36Slide37

SSEPs reflect the dorsal columns of the spinal cord (

proprioception and vibration) supplied by the posterior spinal artery.

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MEPs reflect the motor pathways and the portion of the spinal cord supplied by the anterior spinal artery.

The combined use of SSEPs and MEPs may increase the early detection of intraoperative spinal cord ischemia.

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38Slide39

If both SSEPs and MEPs are to be monitored during major spine surgery, one might consider providing anesthesia with an

ultrashort-acting opioid infusion with a low dose of inhaled anesthetic and monitoring the electroencephalogram to minimize the potential for

intraoperative awareness

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39Slide40

Blood Loss

A combination of IV hypotensive agents and volatile anesthetics is frequently used in an attempt to decrease blood loss during surgery.Perioperative

coagulopathy from dilution of coagulation factors, platelets, or fibrinolysis

may be predicted from measurement of either the

prothrombin

time or activated partial

thromboplastin

time.

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40Slide41

Visual Loss After Spine Surgery.

Most cases are associated with complex instrumented fusions often associated with prolonged intraoperative hypotension, anemia, large intraoperative blood loss, and prolonged surgery (also present in patients who do not develop blindness).

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41Slide42

The American Society of Anesthesiologists' Closed Claims Registry concludes that patients at high risk for postoperative visual loss after major spine surgery are those in whom blood loss is 1000

mL or greater or undergoing surgery lasting 6 hours or longer.

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42Slide43

Venous Air Embolus.

Venous air embolism can occur in all positions used for laminectomies because the operative site is above the heart level. Presenting signs are usually unexplained hypotension and an increase in the end-tidal nitrogen concentration.

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43Slide44

Postoperative Care

Most patients' tracheas can be extubated immediately after posterior spinal fusion operations if the procedure was relatively uneventful and preoperative vital capacity values were acceptable. The presence of severe facial edema may prevent prompt tracheal

extubation.

Aggressive postoperative pulmonary care, including incentive

spirometry

, is necessary to avoid

atelectasis

and pneumonia.

Continued hemorrhage in the postoperative period is a concern.

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44Slide45

Epidural and Spinal Anesthesia After Major Spine Surgery

Postoperative anatomic changes make needle or catheter placement more difficult after major spine surgery .

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45Slide46

Changes After Major Spine Surgery That May Influence the Ability to Perform Epidural or Spinal Anesthesia

Degenerative changes (spondylothesis below level of fusion) that increase the chance of spinal cord ischemia and neurologic complications with regional anesthesia

Ligamentum

flavum

injury from prior surgery results in adhesions and possible obliteration of the epidural space or interference with spread of local anesthetic solution (“patchy block”)

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46Slide47

3.Increased incidence of accidental

dural puncture if the epidural space is altered by prior surgery (blood patch is difficult to perform if needed)4.Prior bone grafting or fusion may prevent midline insertion of the needle

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47Slide48

Spinal anesthesia may be a more reliable technique than epidural anesthesia if a regional technique is selected.

The presence of postoperative spinal stenosis or other degenerative changes in the spine or pre-existing neurologic symptoms may preclude the use of regional anesthesia in these patients.

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48Slide49

Surgery to the Upper Extremities

Orthopaedic surgical procedures to the upper extremities are well suited to regional anesthetic techniques .

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49Slide50

Regional Anesthetic Techniques for Upper Extremity Surgery

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50Slide51

Upper extremity peripheral nerve blocks may be used in the treatment and prevention of reflex sympathetic dystrophy. Continuous catheter techniques provide postoperative analgesia and facilitate early limb mobilization.

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51Slide52

The patient should be examined preoperatively to document any neurologic deficits because

orthopaedic surgical procedures often involve peripheral nerves with pre-existing deficits (ulnar nerve transposition at the elbow, carpal tunnel release of the median nerve at the wrist) or may be adjacent to neural structures (total shoulder

arthroplasty or fractures of the proximal humerus

).

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52Slide53

Improper surgical positioning, the use of a tourniquet, and the use of constrictive casts or dressings may also result in

perioperative neurologic ischemia. Local anesthetic selection should be based on the duration and degree of sensory or motor block required. (Prolonged anesthesia in the upper extremity in contrast to the lower extremity is not a contraindication to hospital discharge.)

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53Slide54

Surgery to the Shoulder and Upper Arm

A significant incidence of neurologic deficits in patients undergoing this type of surgery demonstrates the importance of clinical examination before regional anesthetic techniques are performed.

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54Slide55

Total shoulder

arthroplasty may be associated with a postoperative neurologic deficit (brachial plexus injury) that is at the same level of the nerve trunks at which an interscalene block is performed. It is impossible to determine a surgical or anesthetic cause. Most of these injuries represent

neurapraxia and resolve in 3 to 4 months.

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Radial nerve palsy is associated with humeral shaft fractures, and

axillary nerve injury is associated with proximal humeral shaft fractures.

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Anesthetic Management.

Surgery to the shoulder and humerus may be performed under regional (interscalene or

supraclavicular brachial plexus block) or general anesthesia. The ipsilateral diaphragmatic paresis and 25% loss of pulmonary function produced by

interscalene

block mean that this block is contraindicated in patients with severe pulmonary disease.

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57Slide58

Surgery to the Elbow

Surgical procedures to the distal humerus, elbow, and forearm are suited to regional anesthetic techniques. Supraclavicular block of the brachial plexus is more reliable than the

axillary approach (which may miss the musculocutaneous nerve) but introduces the risk of

pneumothorax

(typically manifests 6–12 hours after hospital discharge such that postoperative chest radiography may not be useful).

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58Slide59

surgery of the Wrist and Hand

Brachial plexus block (axillary approach) is most commonly used for surgical procedures of the forearm, wrist, and hand. The interscalene

approach is seldom used for wrist and hand procedures because of possible incomplete block of the ulnar nerve (15%–30% of patients), and the

supraclavicular

approach introduces the risk of

pneumothorax

.

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59Slide60

IV regional anesthesia (“Bier block”) permits the use of a tourniquet but has disadvantages of limited duration (90–120 minutes), possible local anesthetic systemic toxicity, and rapid termination of anesthesia (and postoperative analgesia) on tourniquet deflation.

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60Slide61

Continuous Brachial Plexus Anesthesia

Catheters placed in the sheath surrounding the brachial plexus permit continuous infusion of local anesthetic solution. (Bupivacaine 0.125% prevents vasospasm and improves circulation after limb

reimplantation or vascular repair.)Indwelling catheters may be left in place for 4 to 7 days after surgery.

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Surgery to the Lower Extremities

Orthopaedic procedures to the lower extremity may be performed under general or regional anesthesia, although regional anesthesia may provide some unique advantages .

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Lumbosacral Techniques for Major Lower Extremity Surgery

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Surgery to the Hip

Surgical Approach and Positioning. The lateral decubitus position is frequently used to facilitate surgical exposure for total hip

arthroplasty, and a fracture table is often used for repair of femur fractures. The patient must be carefully monitored for hemodynamic changes during positioning when under general or regional anesthesia. (Adequate hydration and gradual movement minimize blood pressure decreases.)

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Care should be taken to pad and position the arms and to avoid compression of the brachial plexus. (A “chest roll” is placed

caudad to the axilla to support the upper part of the dependent thorax.)

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Anesthetic Technique

Spinal or epidural anesthesia is well suited to procedures involving the hip. Deliberate hypotension can also be used with general anesthesia as a means of decreasing surgical blood loss.

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Total Knee Arthroplasty

(TKA)Patients undergoing TKA experience significant postoperative pain, which impedes physical therapy and rehabilitation.

Regional anesthetic techniques that can be used for surgical procedures on the knee include epidural, spinal, and peripheral leg blocks. Spinal anesthesia is often selected, but an advantage of a continuous epidural is postoperative pain management. (Aggressive postoperative regional analgesic techniques for 48–72 hours shorten the rehabilitation period more than systemic

opioids

.)

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Patients undergoing amputation of a lower limb often benefit from the use of regional anesthesia, although adequate sedation is imperative.

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Postoperative Analgesia after Major Joint Replacement.

Pain after total joint replacement, particularly total knee replacement, is severe. Single-dose and continuous peripheral nerve techniques that block the lumbar plexus (femoral nerve block) with or without sciatic nerve block provide excellent postoperative analgesia.

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Knee Arthroscopy and Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Repair

Diagnostic knee arthroscopy may be performed under local anesthesia with sedation. (A single dose or continuous lower extremity block is not warranted in most patients.) ACL repair requires postoperative analgesia (femoral nerve blocks should be considered).

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Intra-

articular injection of local anesthetics (bupivacaine), opioids (morphine), or both has become routine for

perioperative management after arthroscopic knee surgery.

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Surgery to the Ankle and Foot

Peripheral nerve blocks (femoral and sciatic nerve) provide acceptable anesthesia for surgery on the foot and ankle.

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72Slide73

Microvascular

Surgery

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Anesthetic Considerations for Microvascular Surgery for Limb

ReplantationMaintain blood flow through

microvascular anastomoses (critical for graft viability).

Prevent hypothermia (increase temperature of operating room to 21°C; warm IV solutions and inhaled gases).

Maintain perfusion pressure.

Avoid

vasopressors

.

Use vasodilators (volatile anesthetics,

nitroprusside

) and sympathetic nervous system block (regional anesthesia).

Consider

normovolemic

hemodilution

.

Administer

antithrombotics

(heparin) with or without

fibrinolytics

(low-molecular-weight

dextran

).

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74Slide75

7.Remember positioning considerations associated with long surgical procedures.

8.Replace blood and fluid losses. 9.Consider the choice of anesthesia (often a combination of regional and general anesthesia)

10.Sympathectomy is helpful, but the long duration of surgery may limit use of single-shot techniques (another option is a continuous technique)11.Ensure airway access and patient immobility.

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Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery

Regional anesthetic techniques are adaptable to pediatric patients, especially in those older than 7 years of age.

IV regional anesthesia is particularly useful in pediatric patients for minor procedures such as closed reduction of forearm fractures.

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The use of local anesthetic creams minimizes patient discomfort during placement of an IV catheter.

The size of the upper arm often precludes the use of a double tourniquet in pediatric patients, thus limiting the duration of the surgical procedure to 45 to 60 minutes (tourniquet pain typically develops by this time).

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Other Considerations

Anesthesia for Nonsurgical “Closed” Orthopaedic Procedures. Some minor procedures (cast and dressing changes in pediatric patients, pin removal) require only light sedation, but procedures involving bone and joint manipulation (hip and shoulder relocation, closed reduction of fractures) usually require a general or regional anesthetic.

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78Slide79

Tourniquets

Opinions differ as to the pressure required in tourniquets to prevent bleeding (usually 100 mm Hg above patient's systolic blood pressure for the leg and 50 mm Hg above systolic blood pressure for the arm). Before the tourniquet is inflated, the limb should be elevated for about 1 minute and tightly wrapped with an elastic bandage distally to proximally. Oozing despite tourniquet inflation is most likely caused by

intramedullary blood flow in long bones.

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The duration of safe tourniquet inflation is unknown (1–2 hours is not associated with irreversible changes). Five minutes of intermittent perfusion between 1 and 2 hours may allow more extended use.

Transient systemic metabolic acidosis and increased PaCO2 (1–8 mm Hg) may occur after tourniquet deflation.

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80Slide81

Tourniquet pain despite adequate operative anesthesia typically appears after about 45 minutes (may reflect more rapid recovery of C fibers as the block wanes). During surgery, this pain is managed with

opioids and hypnotics

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81Slide82

Fat Embolus Syndrome

Patients at risk include those with multiple traumatic injuries and surgery involving long bone fractures, intramedullary instrumentation or cementing, or total knee surgery. The incidence of fat embolism syndrome in isolated long bone fractures is 3% to 4%, and the mortality rate is 10% to 20%.

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Clinical and laboratory signs usually occur 12 to 40 hours after injury and may range from mild

dyspnea to coma .Treatment includes early stabilization of fractures and support of oxygenation. Steroid therapy may be instituted

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83Slide84

Criteria for Diagnosis of Fat Embolism Syndrome

MAJOR :Axillary or subconjunctival

petechiae Hypoxemia (PaO

2

< 60 mm Hg)

CNS depression (disproportionate to hypoxemia)

Pulmonary edema

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Criteria for Diagnosis of Fat Embolism Syndrome

MINOR:Tachycardia (>100 bpm)

HyperthermiaRetinal fat emboli

Urinary fat globules

Decreased platelets

Increased ESR

DIC

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85Slide86

Methyl Methacrylate

Insertion of this cement may be associated with hypotension, which has been attributed to absorption of the volatile monomer of methyl methacrylate

or embolization of air (nitrous oxide should be discontinued before cement is placed) and bone marrow during femoral reaming.

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86Slide87

Adequate hydration and maximizing oxygenation minimize the hypotension and arterial hypoxemia that may accompany cementing of the prosthesis.

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87Slide88

Venous

thromboembolism is a major cause of death after surgery or trauma to the lower extremities. Without prophylaxis, 40% to 80% of orthopaedic patients develop venous thrombosis. (The incidence of fatal pulmonary embolism is highest in patients who have undergone surgery for hip fracture.)

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88Slide89

Antithrombotic prophylaxis is based on identification of risk factors .

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89Slide90

Antithrombotic Regimens to Prevent Thromboembolism

in Orthopedic Surgical PatientsHip and Knee Arthroplasty and Hip Fracture Surgery

LMWH* started 12 hours before surgery or 12 to 24 hours after surgery or 4 to 6 hours after surgery at half the usual dose and then increasing to the usual high-risk dose the following day.

Fondaparinux

(2.5 mg started 6 to 8 hours after surgery)

Adjusted-dose

warfarin

started preoperatively or the evening after surgery (INR target, 2.5; range, 2.0–3.0)

Intermittent pneumatic compression is an alternative option to anticoagulant prophylaxis in patients undergoing total knee (but not hip) replacement.

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90Slide91

Spinal Cord Injury

LMWH after primary hemostasis is evident

Intermittent pneumatic compression is an alternative when anticoagulation is contraindicated early after surgery.

During the rehabilitation phase, conversion to adjusted-dose

warfarin

(INR target, 2.5; range, 2.0–3.0).

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91Slide92

Elective Spine Surgery

Routine use of thromboprophylaxis, apart from early and persistent mobilization, is not recommended.

Knee Arthroscopy

Routine use of

thromboprophylaxis

, apart from early and persistent mobilization, is not recommended.

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92Slide93

Possible Explanations for Decreased Incidence of Deep Vein Thrombosis in Patients Receiving Regional Anesthesia

Rheologic changes resulting in hyperkinetic lower extremity blood flow and associated decrease in venous stasis and thrombus formation

Beneficial circulatory effects from epinephrine added to local anesthetic solution

Altered coagulation and

fibrinolytic

responses to surgery under neural blockade, resulting in decreased tendency for blood to clot

Absence of positive pressure ventilation and its effects on circulation

Direct local anesthetic effects (decreased platelet aggregation)

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93Slide94

Despite perceived advantages of

neuraxial techniques for hip and knee surgery (including a decreased incidence of DVT), patients receiving perioperative anticoagulants and

antiplatelet medications are often not considered candidates for spinal or epidural anesthesia because of the risk of neurologic deficit from a spinal or epidural hematoma .

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94Slide95

Neuraxial Anesthesia and Analgesia in Orthopedic Patients Receiving Antithrombotic Therapy

Low-Molecular-Weight HeparinNeedle placement should occur 10 to 12 hours after a dose.

Indwelling neuraxial catheters are allowed with once-

daily (but not twice-daily) dosing of LMWH.

It is optimal to place and remove indwelling catheters in the morning and administer LMWH in the evening to allow normalization of

hemostasis

to occur before catheter manipulation.

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Warfarin

Adequate levels of all vitamin K–dependent factors should be present during catheter placement and removal.Patients chronically on warfarin

should have a normal INR before performance of the regional technique.PT and INR should be monitored daily.

The catheter should be removed when INR <1.5.

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Fondaparinux

Neuraxial techniques are not advised in patients who are anticipated to receive fondaparinux..

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Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs

No significant risk of regional anesthesia-related bleeding is associated with aspirin-type drugs.

For patients receiving warfarin or LMWH, the combined anticoagulant and

antiplatelet

effects may increase the risk of

perioperative

bleeding.

Other medications affecting platelet function (

thienopyridine

derivatives and glycoprotein

IIb

/

IIIa

platelet receptor inhibitors) should be avoided.

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98Slide99

The patient should be closely monitored in the

perioperative period for signs of paralysis. If a spinal hematoma is suspected, the treatment is immediate decompressive

laminectomy. (Recovery of neurologic function is unlikely if >10–12 hours elapse.)

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