Nanotechnology

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Nanotechnology




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Presentations text content in Nanotechnology

Slide1

Nanotechnology Purifying drinking water in the developing world

Thomas PrevenslikQED RadiationsDiscovery Bay, Hong Kong

Isfahan University of Technology - Quantum Mechanics in Nanotechnology - October 8-9, 2014

1

Slide2

Classical physics assumes the atom always has heat capacity, but QM requires the heat capacity to vanish at the nanoscaleQM = quantum mechanicsUnphysical results with Classical PhysicsNanofluids violate mixing rulesThermal conductivity of thin films depends on thickness Nanostructures do not charge The Universe is expanding Nanoparticles do not damage DNAMolecular Dynamics is valid for nanostructuresAnd on and on

Background

Isfahan University of Technology - Quantum Mechanics in Nanotechnology - October 8-9, 2014

2

Slide3

QM Consequences

Isfahan University of Technology - Quantum Mechanics in Nanotechnology - October 8-9, 2014

Without heat capacity, the atom cannot conserve EM energy by the usual increase in temperature.Conservation proceeds by the creation of QED induced non-thermal EM radiation that charges the nanostructure or is lost to the surroundingsQED = quantum electrodynamicsEM = electromagnetic. Fourier’s law that depends on temperature changes is not applicable at the nanoscale

 

3

Slide4

Advantages of QM

Isfahan University of Technology - Quantum Mechanics in Nanotechnology - October 8-9, 2014

Unphysical interpretations of the nanoscale are avoidedNanofluids obey mixing rulesThermal conductivity of thin films remains at bulk Nanostructures create charge or emit EM radiationThe Universe is not expanding Nanoparticles damage DNA Molecular Dynamics is valid for nanostructuresNanocomposites cross-link by EUV radiation And on and on

4

Slide5

QM at the Macroscale

Isfahan University of Technology - Quantum Mechanics in Nanotechnology - October 8-9, 2014

Applying a nano coating on macrostructures avoids natural convection and conserves heat by emission of QED radiation instead of temperature increases Suggesting:QED is the FOURTH mode of Heat Transfer?( 3 modes known: Conduction, Radiation, Convection)Turbine blade coolingCooling of Conventional ElectronicsMoore’s law and 13.5 nm Lithography

5

Slide6

4th Mode of Heat Transfer

Isfahan University of Technology - Quantum Mechanics in Nanotechnology - October 8-9, 2014

QED radiation

NanoCoating

avoids natural convection and conserves Joule heat by QED radiation instead of temperature

increase

Joule hea

t

Conventional

Electronics

Coating

N

atural

convect

ion

6

Slide7

Isfahan University of Technology - Quantum Mechanics in Nanotechnology - October 8-9, 2014

Theory

Heat Capacity of the Atom TIR ConfinementQED Heat TransferQED Emission Spectrum

7

Slide8

Heat Capacity of the Atom

NEMS

Isfahan University of Technology - Quantum Mechanics in Nanotechnology - October 8-9, 2014

In MEMS, atoms have heat capacity, but not in NEMS

M

EMS

kT 0.0258 eV

Classical Physics

QM

8

Slide9

Since the RI of coating > electronics, the QED radiation is confined by TIR Circuit elements ( films, wires, etc) have high surface to volume ratio, but why important? The EM energy absorbed in the surface of circuit elements provides the TIR confinement of QED radiation. QED radiation is spontaneously created from Joule heat dissipated in nanoelectronics. f = (c/n) /  and E = hf

TIR Confinement

Isfahan University of Technology - Quantum Mechanics in Nanotechnology - October 8-9, 2014

For thin film of thickness d ,  = 2dFor NPs of diameter d ,  =  d

9

Slide10

QED Heat Transfer

Excitons

Excitons

= Hole and Electron Pairs →

Photons

QED Excitons = EM radiation + Charge

 

Conservation by QED Excitons is very rapidQabs is conserved by photons before thermalization only after which phonons respondNo thermal conduction  0Fourier solutions are meaningless Conductivity remains at bulk

 

 

Isfahan University of Technology - Quantum Mechanics in Nanotechnology - October 8-9, 2014

Phonons

Qcond

Charge

QED

R

adiation

10

Slide11

QED Emission Spectrum

Isfahan University of Technology - Quantum Mechanics in Nanotechnology - October 8-9, 2014

QED radiation emission in VIS and UV

radiation

11

Slide12

Applications

Isfahan University of Technology - Quantum Mechanics in Nanotechnology - October 8-9, 2014

Thin FilmsQED Heat Transfer Electronics Circuit DesignNanocompositesEUV Lithography Validity of Molecular DynamicsNanochannelsExpanding UniverseQED Water Purifier

12

Slide13

World Water

Isfahan University of Technology - Quantum Mechanics in Nanotechnology - October 8-9, 2014

13

WHO/UNICEF

estimates

about

1 billion people

in the

developing

world

lack access

to

safe

drinking water.

Conventional

water treatment is

costly

.

Lacking municipal water supplies, the water is collected from rivers or lakes and stored in containers for later use.

The

most direct way

of purifying water is by

boiling

small quantities of water, but this requires a

source of heat

which, except for

fire

, is

not available

.

Since building a fire is

inconvenient

, low-cost

methods for purifying water for

drinking are needed.

Slide14

Alternatives

Isfahan University of Technology - Quantum Mechanics in Nanotechnology - October 8-9, 2014

14

Unfortunately, there are

no known

low-cost

alternatives

to purifying water other than by

boiling

.

However

boiling

requires a

source of

heat.

Sunlight

could be focused to

boil small volumes of drinking water, but the

purification

is only available during the

day

If

portable

electrical powe

r is available, the water could pumped through

filters coated

with silver NPs.

Silver

NPs

are widely known to provide

antimicrobial

action by

damaging the DNA

of

bacteria.

B

ut

NPs

that come off the filter and

enter drinking water

damage

human DNA

, that if not

repaired, leads

to

cancer

.

Slide15

UV Disinfection

Isfahan University of Technology - Quantum Mechanics in Nanotechnology - October 8-9, 2014

15

UV

disinfection

of drinking water occurs outside the body and

avoids

the danger of

cancer

posed by silver

NPs

But

UV disinfection

is

unfeasible

as electrical power is generally not available and costly if available

.

The

developing

world

needs an

inexpensive

alternative of purifying drinking water.

Slide16

Proposal

Isfahan University of Technology - Quantum Mechanics in Nanotechnology - October 8-9, 2014

16

QED

induced

UV

radiation from using

nano-coated

drinking

bowls

is proposed as the mechanism by which drinking water is purified

inexpensively

without electrical power.

QED

= quantum

electrodynamics.

QED

induced purification is a consequence of

QM

that forbids the

atoms

in nano-coatings under

TIR

confinement to have the

heat capacity

to

increase in temperature

.

QM

= quantum mechanics

TIR

= total

internal reflection.

Slide17

QED Induced UV

Isfahan University of Technology - Quantum Mechanics in Nanotechnology - October 8-9, 2014

17

Slide18

Theory

Isfahan University of Technology - Quantum Mechanics in Nanotechnology - October 8-9, 2014

18

Disinfection occurs as the

body heat

from the

hands

of the person

holding

the drinking

bowl

is

transferred

to the

coating

.

Because

of

QM

, the body

heat

cannot increase the

coating

temperature

as the

heat

capacity vanishes

under

TIR

.

Instead, conservation proceeds

by

QED inducing

the heat to be

converted

to

UV

radiation

.

The

TIR

wavelength

,

= 2 n d

n

and

d

are the

refractive index

and

thickness

of the

coating.

Optimum

UV wavelength

to

destroy bacteria is

250 -

270

nm

Zinc

oxide

coating having

n = 2

requires

d =

65 nm.

 

Slide19

UV Intensity

Isfahan University of Technology - Quantum Mechanics in Nanotechnology - October 8-9, 2014

19

Guidelines for the UV intensity suggest the minimum dose at all points in the water 16 to 38 mW / cm2. For a 20 cm drinking bowl, the body heat is about 5 to 10 W. The 5 to 10 W is consistent with the sudden application of body temperature TH = 37 C to the coating at TC = 20 C where,  is the density, C the heat capacity, and A the area of the coating. H is the heat transfer coefficient between hand and bowl. QM requires C to vanish instantaneous UV.

 

Slide20

Conclusion

Isfahan University of Technology - Quantum Mechanics in Nanotechnology - October 8-9, 2014

20

The

QM

requirement of

vanishing heat capacity

in

nano-coated

drinking

bowls

offers the developing world

inexpensive

QED

induced

UV disinfection

of

water

Fabricate

drinking bowls and

run

disinfection of

E- coli

Slide21

Questions & Papers

Email: nanoqed@gmail.com http://www.nanoqed.org

Isfahan University of Technology - Quantum Mechanics in Nanotechnology - October 8-9, 2014

21

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