Spring Final Review

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Spring Final Review

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Spring Final Review

Body Systems, Ecosystems, & Impact of Natural and Human Events


Building blocks of life

Most basic

 most complex

Cell tissue  organs  organ systems


Skeletal System

Structures: bones, ligaments, tendons, and cartilage Function: protect internal organs, support body, store calcium (in bones), assist in motion,Other Systems it interacts with:Muscular system


Muscular System


: muscles (smooth, skeletal, cardiac) and tendons


to generate (make/allow) movement

Other Systems it interacts with






involuntary muscles:

Voluntary muscles- muscles you voluntarily move

Example: to raise your hand your brain sends a signal to your arm to contract and relax your muscles to raise your arm

Involuntary muscles:- muscles that naturally contract and relax on their own

Examples: the muscles in your digestive system that pushes food throughout your digestive system


Integumentary System


: hair, skin (sweat glands), nails


to protect the body from harmful germs, regulate temperature, produce vitamin D

Other Systems it interacts with


Excretory system


Digestive System

Structures: mouth (break down food), esophagus (involuntary muscles push down food), stomach (bile chemically breaks down food and involuntary stomach muscles mechanically break down food), small intestine (nutrients are absorbed through villi), large intestine (water is absorbed), colon, anusFunction: to mechanically and chemically digest food and to absorb nutrients and waterOther Systems it interacts with:ExcretoryMuscular skeletalChemical vs. mechanical:Chemical digestion- where chemicals break down food and change the chemical makeupExample: saliva mixing with food to break it down in your mouthMechanical digestion- where food is physically broken down into smaller piecesExample: teeth grinding food down in your mouth


Excretory System

Structures: large intestine, kidneys, skin, lungs, bladder, urethra Function: to remove harmful or unwanted waste I excrete I peeOther Systems it interacts with:RespiratoryIntegumentaryDigestivecirculatory


Endocrine System

Structures: hypothalamus gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, adrenal gland, testes, ovariesFunction: to synthesize hormones, to respond to stimuli, regulate (control) body functions and development (puberty), and to help maintain homeostasis Other Systems it interacts with:ReproductiveCirculatorynervous


Circulatory System

Structures: heart, veins, red/white blood cellsFunction: to deliver oxygen and nutrients to cells, and to take away waste (such as carbon dioxide CO2) from cellsOther Systems it interacts with:respiratory


Respiratory System

Structures: (see picture)Function: to inhale (take in) oxygen for the body and exhale (remove) carbon dioxide from the bodyThe oxygen that is taken in through the respiratory system is then transported all over the body through the circulatory systemOther Systems it interacts with: circulatory


Nervous System

Structures: brain, spinal cord, nerves, neuron (cell)Function: to sense/respond to stimuli and to process informationOther Systems it interacts with:Muscular Skeletal


Internal vs. External Stimuli

Stimuli cause the nervous system to react

Internal: inside

Example responses:

Wilting in plants due to lack of water

Fever or vomiting in animals to maintain a healthy balance

Stomach growls because you are hungry

External: outside

Example: someone scares you so you scream


Fight or flight:


Reproductive System


: ovaries and testes


to sexually repopulate or reproduce (generate offspring/babies)

Other systems it


nteracts with:




work=force x distance

For work to be done, the force applied and direction moved must be in the same direction

Less work is done with a ramp, smooth surface, and wheels


work is done if you sweat= false

Work is only done when the direction of movement and force are in the same direction


Forces That Affect Motion

Turgor pressure:



Abiotic vs Biotic

Abiotic factors- the nonliving factors in the environment

examples: water (characteristics of water such as temperature or pH), soil, light

Biotic factors- any living thing in an environment

Examples: plants, animals


Compost Bin

Example: see pictureMisconception: decomposer vs. scavengerDecomposer: breaks down dead or decaying matter and returns nitrogen to the environment, however a scavenger just breaks down or eats dead matter


Natural Disasters

Hurricane: form over the ocean, can move over land, high winds can break/uproot trees, high amount of rains can also cause flooding

Flood: caused by heavy rains; can occur when a river or steam overflows

 can cause topsoil to be eroded away

Tornado: forms over land, violent spinning high winds, path of destruction can be limited to size of funnel; trees can be uprooted



Primary Succession: when a community starts for the first time in an area that does not have any soil

Lichens: organisms that grown on rock and transform/breakdown rock into soil

Pioneer species: the first organisms to live in an uninhabited area. Example:


Secondary Succession: occurs in areas that have been damaged by natural disasters such as fires or floods but still have soil

Climax community/species: the mature, well adapted community of organisms that have been established


Water tables/sheds

Positive & negative impacts


Build a dam to help alter the flow

Can help preserve and protect water


chemical pollution through household chemicals that cycle through the drainage system

Agricultural and farming impacting/polluting runoff water

Overuse of water



When rock is broken down by physical or chemical means

Physical weathering

Chemical weathering



When rock is carried away



When rock is dropped off in a new location




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