The Green Movement

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The Green Movement




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Slide1

The Green Movement

Protest of 2009 ElectionMovement for political liberalization

Former President Khatami (progressive) gave a green sash to Mir Hossein Mousavi.

Slide2

Media in Iran

Overview

Iranian Constitution and the Media

Newspapers

Broadcasting

Since 2009

Slide3

Open Net Initiative

http://map.opennet.net/filtering-pol.html

Slide4

Slide5

Religion In Iran

Shiism

is the official state religion.

Constitution “protects” certain religious minorities:

Zoroastrians, Christians, Jews

Religious Demographics

Shia Muslim: 89%

Sunni Muslim: 9%

Other religions: 2%

Slide6

Religious Restrictions

Apostasy: Punishable by death

Non-Muslims cannot engage in public religious acts.

Non-Muslim activity closely monitored, including private religious schools.

Non-Muslims: can only serve in lower ranks of government.

Non-Muslims can only serve in one of four minority

Majles

seats.

Judaism suffers official discrimination.

Ahmadinejad: outspokenly anti-Semitic

Slide7

Examples of Religious Persecution

Iranian Shiite Ayatollah

Seyed

Hossein

Kazemeini

Boroujerdi

, along with 17 of his followers, have been imprisoned for espousing religious views that are incongruent with the official religious views of the government since 2006. He is serving an 11-year prison term and is reportedly in poor health

.

In May 2010 most of the 20 Sufi practitioners arrested in July 2009 in the northeastern city of

Gonabad

received sentences of flogging or imprisonment. They were among more than 200 Sufi dervishes who gathered to protest the arrest of

Hossein

Zareya

, a local leader

.

In November 2008 Amir Ali Mohammad

Labaf

of the

Gonabadi

Sufi order was sentenced to 74 lashes, five years in prison, and internal exile to the town of

Babak

for "spreading lies

.“

In February 2009 authorities razed the house of worship of

Gonabadi

dervishes at

Takht

-e-

Foulad

, in Isfahan, with bulldozers. All Sufis present were arrested and had their mobile phones confiscated. Sufi books and publications were destroyed.

Taken From: http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/irf/2010_5/168264.htm

Slide8

Examples of Religious Persecution

Christians, particularly evangelicals, continued to be subject to harassment and close surveillance. During the reporting period, the government enforced its prohibition on proselytizing by closely monitoring the activities of evangelical Christians, discouraging Muslims from entering church premises, closing churches, and arresting Christian converts. Members of evangelical congregations were required to carry membership cards, photocopies of which must be provided to the authorities. Worshippers were subject to identity checks by authorities posted outside congregation centers. The government restricted meetings for evangelical services to Sundays, and church officials were ordered to inform the Ministry of Information and Islamic Guidance before admitting new members.

On November 13 following his October 2009 arrest,

Youcef

Nadarkhani

, a pastor of a house church in

Gilan

, reportedly received a death sentence for apostasy and evangelism

.

Taken From: http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/irf/2010_5/168264.htm

Slide9

Importance of Qom

Religious center of Iran

City of seminaries and religious scholarsPragmatist clericsDisagree with velayat-e-faqihGreater church/state separationFormer President KhatamiConservative clericsOppose pragmatists

Slide10

Iranian Social Culture

Pragmatists/Progressives v. Conservatives

Slide11

http://

www.prb.org/pdf/IransFamPlanProg_Eng.pdf

Slide12

Economic & Political Indicators

Slide13

Iranian Economy

Rentier

State

Oil Exports=85% of government revenue

Shah Reza Pahlavi

1960-1977: GNP average=9.6% annually

One of the fastest developing countries

Huge economic disparity between rich and poor/urban and rural

Slide14

Kesselman, Krieger, and Joseph. Introduction to Comparative Politics. 5th ed. (Wadsworth, Canada), 2010.

Slide15

After the Revolution of 1979

Many entrepreneurs fled after 1979.

Bonyads

Government seized assets/property of Shah and his supporters.

Turned into a form of government-sponsored charity run by clerics

(patronage).

State

controls approx. 80% of Iranian economy

Widespread corruption and mismanagement.

Smallest

private sector of any country we studied.

Heavy

government regulation of private industry.

Slide16

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ir.htmlhttp://www.indexmundi.com/g/g.aspx?v=71&c=ir&l=enhttp://www.imra.org.il/story.php3?id=56390

March 2012

Inflation=21.5%

2011

Unemployment=15.3%

Slide17

Factors Causing the Struggling Economy

1979 Revolution drove out entrepreneurs

Iran-Iraq War

Mismanagement and corruption

U.S., EU, and UN sanctions (nuclear ambitions)

Overreliance on oil

Brain Drain”

Costly government subsidy programs

Slide18

Government Subsidy Program

Prices for energy and everyday goods kept artificially low.Poor benefitted little from energy subsidy.

Slide19

Targeted Subsidies Reform Act, 2010

Reduce or remove subsidies

Poor receive a direct cash payment.

RESULT

INFLATION: Everything costs more

International Sanctions make inflation worse

March 2012: Inflation=21.5%

Slide20

Iran’s Nuclear Ambitions

Nov 2011 IAEA Report

Suggested that Iran conducted tests “relevant to the development of a nuclear explosive devise

Iranian Response

Only seeking nuclear energy; not weapon

UN, EU,

and US responded with tougher sanctions

.

Trade embargo on nuclear technology and equipment.

Restrict activities of Iranian banks.

Oil embargo against Iran.

Iran threatened to block Strait of Hormuz

Slide21

Strait of Hormuz

Slide22


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