Protest of 2009 Election. Movement for political liberalization. Former President . Khatami (progressive) gave a green sash to Mir . Hossein. . Mousavi. .. Media in Iran. Overview. Iranian Constitution and the Media. ID: 494143
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The Green Movement
Protest of 2009 ElectionMovement for political liberalization
Former President Khatami (progressive) gave a green sash to Mir Hossein Mousavi.Slide2
Media in Iran
Iranian Constitution and the Media
Open Net Initiative
Religion In Iran
is the official state religion.
Constitution “protects” certain religious minorities:
Zoroastrians, Christians, Jews
Shia Muslim: 89%
Sunni Muslim: 9%
Other religions: 2%Slide6
Apostasy: Punishable by death
Non-Muslims cannot engage in public religious acts.
Non-Muslim activity closely monitored, including private religious schools.
Non-Muslims: can only serve in lower ranks of government.
Non-Muslims can only serve in one of four minority
Judaism suffers official discrimination.
Ahmadinejad: outspokenly anti-SemiticSlide7
Examples of Religious Persecution
Iranian Shiite Ayatollah
, along with 17 of his followers, have been imprisoned for espousing religious views that are incongruent with the official religious views of the government since 2006. He is serving an 11-year prison term and is reportedly in poor health
In May 2010 most of the 20 Sufi practitioners arrested in July 2009 in the northeastern city of
received sentences of flogging or imprisonment. They were among more than 200 Sufi dervishes who gathered to protest the arrest of
, a local leader
In November 2008 Amir Ali Mohammad
Sufi order was sentenced to 74 lashes, five years in prison, and internal exile to the town of
for "spreading lies
In February 2009 authorities razed the house of worship of
, in Isfahan, with bulldozers. All Sufis present were arrested and had their mobile phones confiscated. Sufi books and publications were destroyed.
Taken From: http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/irf/2010_5/168264.htmSlide8
Examples of Religious Persecution
Christians, particularly evangelicals, continued to be subject to harassment and close surveillance. During the reporting period, the government enforced its prohibition on proselytizing by closely monitoring the activities of evangelical Christians, discouraging Muslims from entering church premises, closing churches, and arresting Christian converts. Members of evangelical congregations were required to carry membership cards, photocopies of which must be provided to the authorities. Worshippers were subject to identity checks by authorities posted outside congregation centers. The government restricted meetings for evangelical services to Sundays, and church officials were ordered to inform the Ministry of Information and Islamic Guidance before admitting new members.
On November 13 following his October 2009 arrest,
, a pastor of a house church in
, reportedly received a death sentence for apostasy and evangelism
Taken From: http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/irf/2010_5/168264.htmSlide9
Importance of Qom
Religious center of Iran
City of seminaries and religious scholarsPragmatist clericsDisagree with velayat-e-faqihGreater church/state separationFormer President KhatamiConservative clericsOppose pragmatistsSlide10
Iranian Social Culture
Pragmatists/Progressives v. ConservativesSlide11
Economic & Political IndicatorsSlide13
Oil Exports=85% of government revenue
Shah Reza Pahlavi
1960-1977: GNP average=9.6% annually
One of the fastest developing countries
Huge economic disparity between rich and poor/urban and ruralSlide14
Kesselman, Krieger, and Joseph. Introduction to Comparative Politics. 5th ed. (Wadsworth, Canada), 2010.Slide15
After the Revolution of 1979
Many entrepreneurs fled after 1979.
Government seized assets/property of Shah and his supporters.
Turned into a form of government-sponsored charity run by clerics
controls approx. 80% of Iranian economy
Widespread corruption and mismanagement.
private sector of any country we studied.
government regulation of private industry.Slide16
Factors Causing the Struggling Economy
1979 Revolution drove out entrepreneurs
Mismanagement and corruption
U.S., EU, and UN sanctions (nuclear ambitions)
Overreliance on oil
Costly government subsidy programsSlide18
Government Subsidy Program
Prices for energy and everyday goods kept artificially low.Poor benefitted little from energy subsidy.Slide19
Targeted Subsidies Reform Act, 2010
Reduce or remove subsidies
Poor receive a direct cash payment.
INFLATION: Everything costs more
International Sanctions make inflation worse
March 2012: Inflation=21.5%Slide20
Iran’s Nuclear Ambitions
Nov 2011 IAEA Report
Suggested that Iran conducted tests “relevant to the development of a nuclear explosive devise
Only seeking nuclear energy; not weapon
and US responded with tougher sanctions
Trade embargo on nuclear technology and equipment.
Restrict activities of Iranian banks.
Oil embargo against Iran.
Iran threatened to block Strait of HormuzSlide21
Strait of HormuzSlide22