A SUMMARY OF APOLOGETIC POSITIONS Starting Point Main Emphasis The Chief Goal of Apologetics The Chief Philosophical Influences Arguments Drawn From ypical Criticisms by Rival Schools Points of Agree

A SUMMARY OF APOLOGETIC POSITIONS Starting Point Main Emphasis The Chief Goal of Apologetics The Chief Philosophical Influences Arguments Drawn From ypical Criticisms by Rival Schools Points of Agree A SUMMARY OF APOLOGETIC POSITIONS Starting Point Main Emphasis The Chief Goal of Apologetics The Chief Philosophical Influences Arguments Drawn From ypical Criticisms by Rival Schools Points of Agree - Start

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A SUMMARY OF APOLOGETIC POSITIONS Starting Point Main Emphasis The Chief Goal of Apologetics The Chief Philosophical Influences Arguments Drawn From ypical Criticisms by Rival Schools Points of Agree




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A SUMMARY OF APOLOGETIC POSITIONS Starting Point Main Emphasis The Chief Goal of Apologetics The Chief Philosophical Influences Arguments Drawn From ypical Criticisms by Rival Schools Points of Agreement Among all Three Schools Classical Apologetics Reduction: Reason, espe- cially the classical theistic proofs Sound reason will lead to the truth Goal is to establish the reasonableness of theism Rationalism: Plato, Augustine, Anselm, Aquinas Philosophy oo deductivistically rationalistic (says the inductivist evidentialist); too naive about the sinfulness of the fallen mind

and heart, sacrificing Gods sovereignty by trying to preserve Enlightenment autonomy (says the presuppositionalist); too committed to classical foundationalism (says the Reformed epistemologist). Evidentialism Induction: Empirical data, especially the Resurrection Sound investigation will lead to the truth Goal is to establish the reasonableness of Christianity Empiricism: Aristotle, Bacon, Locke, Butler, Scottish common sense realism (Thomas Reid), B.B. Warfield and Old Princeton History/Science To o optimistic about the powers of the senses, since observation is never neutral and the

presuppositions which select, organize, and judge relevant data are never suspended so that one could appeal to a zero point of unbiased reflec- tion; can only provide probabilistic arguments, while faith requires certainty. Presuppositionalism Presupposition: Negatively, the inconsistency of alternatives; positively, the Scriptures as necessary for even the unbelievers rationality Acceptance of the authori- ty of Scripture will lead to the truth Goal is to establish the sov- ereignty of God over human autonomy Idealism: Hegel, Bradley, and British absolute Idealist thought, Kuyper, an

Til Scripture oo pessimistic about the efficacy of common grace in providing shared convic- tions about rationality, sense-experience, and the innate sense of God; con- fusing apologetics (a pre-evangelistic activity of clearing away objections) with evangelism (sharing the Gospel), presupposi- tionalism tends to deny the value of arguments and is founded on circular reasoning. A rguments are useful, but are not themselves salvific There is common ground of some sort between believers and unbelievers, but not neutral ground Sin has so darkened the mind and heart that we all, by nature,

suppress the truth There is a place for reason, evidences, and Scripture in apologetics Only by the proclamation of Christ in the Gospel does one actually come to faith


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