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Virus Structure, Classification, and Cycles of Infections

Matt Resnick, Riley . Fosnot. , Adam Fields, Brandon Archibald. Overview. What is a Virus?. A microscopic. , . nonliving. particle that survives off of . host-cells. Simple structure made up of proteins and genetic material.

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Virus Structure, Classification, and Cycles of Infections






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Slide1

Virus Structure, Classification, and Cycles of Infections

Matt Resnick, Riley

Fosnot

, Adam Fields, Brandon ArchibaldSlide2

OverviewSlide3

What is a Virus?

A microscopic

,

nonliving

particle that survives off of

host-cells

Simple structure made up of proteins and genetic materialUnable to survive on its ownReproduces by binding to living cells and spreading genetic materialKill host cells as they spread.

MRSlide4

How do viruses differ

All viruses look different in terms of

size

and

structure

Capsid membranes vary in

thicknessGenetic material varies from tens to hundreds of genes.Proteins can only bind to one specific type of host cell

MRSlide5
Slide6

2 universal virus structures

1.

Capsid

- Protein coat that encases the genetic material of a virus

Hard outer layer which protects the genetic material and binds to host cell

2.

Genetic Material- DNA or RNA Enters cell and reproduces to make new virusesKill host cells by spreading genetic material

MRSlide7

Are Viruses considered living?

No

, don't fit criteria for a living organism

Not made of

cells

and cannot reproduce on their own

Don’t have a metabolism and don't maintain homeostasisDon't grow and develop

MRSlide8

Adenovirus

A virus which infects 

adenoid

 cells 

Include: eye lining, intestines, throat

Respiratory

infection which affects mostly childrenSore throat, pink eye, diarrhea, coughUsually goes away in a few days on by ITSELF

RFSlide9

Bacteriophage

A virus that infects

BACTERIA

by attaching to the surface of the bacteria

Inserts it's on

DNA

and begins replicatingCan turn harmless bacteria into harmful bacteriaFood poisoning & Bacterial Infections Usually resolves

itself in a few days 

RFSlide10

Retrovirus

RF

Infects host(

T-Cells

) by RNA (

Reverse

 

Transcriptase)

Takes over cell and replicates 

Disease: HIV --> 

AIDS

Medicine used to stop multiplying 

HIV

cellSlide11

Reverse Transcriptase

How

retroviruses

infect host cell

Turn 

RNA

into DNAUsing the virus RNA implanted into nucleus

RFSlide12

Lytic Infections

Virus enters the bacteria cell and

duplicates

 

Causes cell to burst and breakdown "

lyse

"Injects DNA beginning mRNA process RNA translated into viral proteins and destroy cell DNA

Host cell = Destroyed

AFSlide13

Lysogenic Infections 

Host cell is not immediately taken over 

Viral nucleic acid inserted in host cell's DNA (

Prophage

)

Copied along w/ host cell DNA

Viral DNA and host cells multiplyDaughter cells derive from original host DNA

AFSlide14

Prophage

Bacteriophage

DNA imbeds in bacterial host DNA

Prophage

may remain in host DNA for generations

Triggered by radiation, heat, and certain chemicals

Removes from host cell DNA to direct synthesis of virusLysogenic infection becomes active

lytic infection

AFSlide15

AF

Lysogenic

Viral Genes are

Transcribed

by host cell

Proteins and nucleic acids assemble new viruses

Virus injects DNA into

bacterium

Create

Prophage

Viral DNA inserts itself in bacterial chromosome

Prophage

may replicate w/

bacterium

Virus infection cycle

Can cause spreading to body

 can have a prophage

Lytic

 Slide16

Why Vaccinate?

Vaccination: The injection of a killed

microbe

that stimulates the immune system to fight the microbe

Parents of vaccinated children argue of the lasting

benefits

of vaccinationViruses that once killed thousands of people have been eliminated or close to extinctionImmunization is the objective of vaccinesVaccinations are done by injections 

BASlide17

The Numbers

There has been a steady

decline

in deaths caused by vaccinated preventable diseases

In the 1980's, there had been

350,000

cases of polio each yearThere were 42 cases of polio in 20162-3 million deaths have been avoided due to vaccination Vaccines cost $.10-$20 in developing countries

BASlide18

Why Not Vaccinate?

 Parents are concerned about vaccines containing

toxins

Mercury, aluminum salt, and formaldehyde

"Vaccines cause

autism

"Vaccine manufacturers can’t be sued for making kids sick/big pharma.

BASlide19

Research

 8 children whose first symptoms of

autism

appeared a month after receiving an MMR vaccine.

MMR vaccine caused

intestinal

inflammation Nonpermeable peptides make into bloodstream44 samples of vaccines found dangerous contaminants

BASlide20

ABC's

What are two characteristics of a virus?

A. Comprised of cells and reproduce

B. Kill living cells and maintain homeostasis

C. Grow and reproduce

D. Nonliving and survive off of host cellSlide21

ABC's

Viruses are particles that are made up of 2 structures, ________ and ________.

A. DNA and RNA 

B. Capsid and Genetic Material

C. Head and Tail

D. Capsid and Membrane

MRSlide22

ABC's

Adenovirus affects MAINLY what group of people?

A. Young children

B. Old people 

C. People of European decent 

D. People who contract the H.I.V. virus

RFSlide23

ABC's

Retroviruses affect what type of cells?

A.

Adenoid cells 

B.

Throat, intestines, eye lining, etc.

C. T-Cells D. All of the above

RFSlide24

ABC's

The bursting and breaking down of a cell is known as what?

A. Prophage

B. Lytic Infection

C. Lyse

D. Denaturing

AFSlide25

ABC's

When viral nucleic acid is inserted into a host cell it is called a...?

A. Prophage

B. Viral Protein

C. Lysogenic Infection

D. Virus

AFSlide26

ABC’s

A. Archaea

B. Bacteria

C. Protozoa

D. Microbe

MR

Which dead microorganism is present within vaccinations?Slide27

ABC's

What is one of the major concerns associated with vaccines by anti-vaccinators?

BA

      A. Blindness

 B. Autism

    C. Diabetes

             D. Heart diseaseSlide28

Overview