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“ Evoluzione
“ Evoluzione

“ Evoluzione - PowerPoint Presentation

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“ Evoluzione - Description

epistemologica e metodologica nellanalisi di fenomeni cognitivi nel Regno animale Enrico Alleva e Simone Macrì Istituto Superiore di Sanità Roma Italy ID: 541127 Download Presentation

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pain animals empathy laboratory animals pain laboratory empathy optimism distress study measure pessimism 1970 1967 312 2006 science langford

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Presentation on theme: "“ Evoluzione"— Presentation transcript

Slide1

“Evoluzione epistemologica e metodologica nell’analisi di fenomeni cognitivi nel Regno animale”Enrico Alleva e Simone MacrìIstituto Superiore di Sanità, Roma, Italy. Laboratorio di Neuroetica e cognizione socialeRoma, 18-12-2015Slide2

Charles Darwin1809-1882Slide3

Contribution to comparative psychology: methodology

Questionnaire administered to collaborators aimed at evaluating the expression of emotions across different races. Slide4

[…] Dr. J. Crichton Browne has also often noticed in melancholic patients who keep their eyebrows persistently oblique, "a peculiar acute arching of the upper eyelid." A trace of this may be observed by comparing the right and left eyelids of the young man in the photograph (fig. 2, Plate II.); […]

[…] But the most conspicuous result of the opposed contraction of the above-named muscles, is exhibited by the peculiar furrows formed on the forehead. […]

Contribution to comparative psychology: methodology

http://darwin-online.org.ukSlide5

Fig. 9. Cat, savage and prepared to fight.Fig. 10. Cat in an affectionate frame of mind.

Fig. 15. Cat terrified at a dog.

http://darwin-online.org.uk

Contribution to comparative psychology: methodology Slide6

Jane Goodall (1934-)Slide7
Slide8

Donald R. Griffin (1915-2003)Slide9

Aldo Fasolo (1943-2014) Slide10

Ethical considerations

P. Bateson, When to experiment on animals. New Scientist, 109 (1986), pp. 30–32Slide11

Bateson, P. (1981) Ontogeny of behaviour. Br Med Bull 37, 159-164

Keeping in mind Patrick Bateson

’s cardinal view of neurobehavioral development in mammals as a process akin to the metamorphosis of a caterpillar into a butterfly Slide12
Slide13
Slide14
Slide15
Slide16
Slide17

Morris Water MazeSlide18

Barnes MazeSlide19

The hot-plate testHow do we measure pain in laboratory animals?Slide20

NOCICEPTIVE RESPONSESForepaw lickingStanding on hindlimbs

and

licking forepaws in a washing

action

Hindpaw lickingHead tilted towards hindpaw with ventral surface angled upwards

Testicle

lickingSelf

explained, rare

EXPLORATORY/ESCAPE RESPONSES

Wall rearingStanding on hindlimbs and touching the wall of the apparatus with the forepaws

Rearing

Standing on hindlimbs

JumpingJumping

from the hot-plate surface

From: F. Cirulli, L. De Acetis, E.

Alleva (2000)How do we measure pain in laboratory animals?Slide21

Latency (s)

*

**

55°C - Not isolated (5/cage)

52°C - Not isolated (5/cage)

52°C - Isolated

55°C - Isolated

*p<0.05; **p<0.01

From: F.

Cirulli

, L. De Acetis

, E. Alleva (2000)How do we measure pain in laboratory animals?Slide22

How do we measure pain in laboratory animals?Luminous heat sourceApparatus used for the tail-flick testThe tail-flick testSlide23

How do we measure pain in laboratory animals?The formalin testSlide24

How do we measure pain in laboratory animals?Vacca et al., Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 26, Issue 3, 2012, 489 - 499Slide25

How do we measure pain in laboratory animals?

Macrì et al., Neurotoxicity Research,

Volume

24, 2013, 15

-

28Slide26

How do we measure pain in laboratory animals?

Aghajani

et al.,

PLoS

ONE

, 8(11):

e80650.Slide27

Pain and distress in laboratory animals and the study of empathy and optimism in animalsSlide28

D J Langford et al. Science 2006;312:1967-1970

Empathy

:

The ability to understand and share the feelings of another

Pain and distress in laboratory animals and the study of empathy and optimism in animalsSlide29

D J Langford et al. Science 2006;312:1967-1970

Pain and distress in laboratory animals and the study of empathy and optimism in animalsSlide30

D J Langford et al. Science 2006;312:1967-1970

Pain and distress in laboratory animals and the study of empathy and optimism in animalsSlide31

D J Langford et al. Science 2006;312:1967-1970

Pain and distress in laboratory animals and the study of empathy and optimism in animalsSlide32

D J Langford et al. Science 2006;312:1967-1970

Pain and distress in laboratory animals and the study of empathy and optimism in animalsSlide33

Pain and distress in laboratory animals and the study of empathy and optimism in animalsSlide34

Formalin injection

Pain and distress in laboratory animals and the study of empathy and optimism in animalsSlide35

Formalin injectionPain and distress in laboratory animals and the study of empathy and optimism in animalsSlide36

Formalin injectionPain and distress in laboratory animals and the study of empathy and optimism in animalsSlide37

Formalin injectionPain and distress in laboratory animals and the study of empathy and optimism in animalsSlide38

Pain and distress in laboratory animals and the study of empathy and optimism in animals

Role of stressors in mediating empathy response

Martin et al., 2015, Current Biology 25, 326–332

Mice under variable stressful conditions

Unfamiliar dyads (students)

Unfamiliar dyads

(after videogame playing) Slide39

Depressed state

;

pessimism

Feelings of helplessness and

hopelessness

Loss of interest in daily

activities

Appetite or weight

changes

Sleep

changes

Anger or

irritability

Loss of

energy

Reckless

behavior

.

Pain and distress in laboratory animals and the study of empathy and optimism in animalsSlide40

Depressed state;

pessimism

Feelings of helplessness and

hopelessness

Loss of interest in daily

activities

Appetite or weight

changes

Sleep

changes

Anger or

irritability

Loss of

energy

Reckless

behavior

.

Pain and distress in laboratory animals and the study of empathy and optimism in animalsSlide41

Pessimism (cognitive bias?)“… people in a negative state are more likely to make negative judgements about future events or ambiguous stimuli (‘pessimism’) than people in positive states who show more optimistic judgements and interpretations…” (Mendl et al., 2009)

Pain and distress in laboratory animals and the study of empathy and optimism in animalsSlide42

Pessimism (cognitive bias?)

Pain and distress in laboratory animals and the study of empathy and optimism in animalsSlide43

Pessimism (cognitive bias?)

Pain and distress in laboratory animals and the study of empathy and optimism in animalsSlide44

Pessimism (cognitive bias?)

Pain and distress in laboratory animals and the study of empathy and optimism in animals

Harding and

Mendl

,

Nature

, 2004