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Objective 6.01

Housing Styles. Native American Housing. Tipi, teepee, or tepee . I. deal . portable home, cool in summer and warm in winter. 3 or . 4 poles lashed together at the . top to form a cone shape and covered with hides.

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Objective 6.01






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Slide1

Objective 6.01

Housing StylesSlide2

Native American HousingSlide3

Tipi, teepee, or tepee

I

deal

portable home, cool in summer and warm in winter

3 or

4 poles lashed together at the top to form a cone shape and covered with hidesentrance faced east to get the morning sunSlide4

Adobe (means “mud brick”)

Made

from sand, clay, water, and some kind

of organic material (

sticks, straw, and/or manure), which

builders shape into bricks and dry in the sunExtremely durable and account for some of the oldest existing buildings in the

worldSlide5

Pueblo

Construction materials similar to Adobes

Multi-level homes built on top of each other into cliffs, caves, and on level grounds. Slide6

Longhouse

Built from young trees that were bent to form a long, rectangular frame with a barrel-shaped roof

Frame covered by overlapping strips of bark

Long doorways on each end

Housed multiple families.Slide7

Wigwam

a frame of arched

poles covered with a roofing material made of grass, brush, bark, rushes, mats, reeds, hides or cloth

C

onstruction varies

with the culture and local availability of materialsGood houses for people who stay in the same place for months at a time.Slide8

Early American period (1640-1720

)Slide9

Half-Timbered

E

xterior of house has an exposed wood frame with brick or plaster filling between the frames. Slide10

Cape Cod and Ell

V

ery simple symmetrical design

with a central front

door, surrounded

by two multi-paned windows and a steep pitched roofElls (a building addition at a right angle to the main structure) added later to provide more spaceSlide11

Saltbox

Has a long sloping roof and few windows on the back side

Usually one story in the back and two stories in the front

Earliest

saltbox houses were created when a lean-to addition was added onto the rear of the original house extending the roof

lineSlide12

Garrison

Garrison itself means “a strong structure”

T

ypically two stories with the second-story overhanging in the front

.Slide13

German and Dutch Influences

Addition of shed dormers (instead of gable style) to add light and ventilation to the roof area

Primarily characterized by gambrel roofs having curved eaves along the edges of the house.

farmhouse

, c1760 Slide14

Spanish (Coquina)

The oldest Spanish house in existence in the United States today is located in Florida was built with

coquina

Coquina is a

soft whitish limestone formed of broken shells and corals cemented together

State Archives of Florida, 

Florida Memory

, http://floridamemory.com/items/show/31716Slide15

French Colonial

Upright timber installed directly into the ground with lime mortar and clay mixed with small stones in between the timbers.

Raised basement which would support the floor of the home's primary living quarters.

Exterior stairs often leading to a full length porch over the front façade.

Casement windows were placed on opposite sides of the house to encourage cross-ventilation

Encircling porches accessed via French doorsSteeply pitched hipped roofsSlide16

Swedish/Scandinavian

Built sturdy homes, which became a part of American folklore and were looked upon as truly American buildings called log cabinsSlide17

Eighteenth Century 1720-1840Slide18

Georgian

Symmetrically, centered entry with windows aligned horizontally and vertically

Side-gabled roof; sometimes a gambrel or hipped

Paneled front doors, capped with a decorative crown (pediment) often supported by decorative pilasters

Rectangular or fanlight transom above door

Cornice (decorative strip is located where the roof and the exterior wall of a house meet) emphasized by decorative dentil moldingsHigh-Style Elaborations:Pedimented windows and dormersBelt course between stories (masonry examples)

Quoins of stone or wood imitating stone

Roof balustrades (after 1750)

Centered front gable (pediment) or shallow projecting central gable (after 1750)

Two-story pilasters (after 1750)Slide19

High Style Georgian

Typical GeorgianSlide20

Federal

Low-pitched roof, or flat roof with a balustrade

Windows arranged symmetrically around a center doorway

Semicircular fanlight over the front door

Narrow side windows flanking the front door

Decorative crown or roof over front door Tooth-like dentil moldings in the cornice Palladian window Circular or elliptical windows Slide21

FederalSlide22

Adam

The Adam style was a refinement of the preceding Georgian style. Compared to the earlier Georgian houses, Adam houses tend to appear to have a lightness and delicacy

Semi-circular or elliptical fanlight over the front door, with or without side lights

A fanlight often incorporated into a more elaborate door surround, which may include a decorate crown or small entry porch

A cornice usually emphasized by decorate moldings

Three part Palladian-style windowsHigh style houses may have curved or polygon projections to the side or to the rear. Slide23

AdamSlide24

Greek Revival /Early Classical

Revival

Heavy entablature and cornices

Gable or hipped roof of low pitch

Gable-front orientation

Generally symmetrical, though entry is often to one sideFront door surrounded by narrow sidelights and rectangular transom, usually incorporated into more elaborate door surroundSmall frieze-band windows set into wide band trim below corniceCornice lines emphasized with wide band of trim (plain or with incised decoration, representing classical entablature)Porticos common, either entry or full-width supported by prominent columns Slide25

Greek Revival /Early Classical RevivalSlide26

Nineteenth centurySlide27

Romantic Revival

Period: Gothic

Steeply pitched roof, cross-gabled

Decorative gingerbread trim

Pointed-arch windows, sometimes stained glass, like churches

Gothic window above entryOne-story porch with flattened, Gothic archesSlide28

Gothic RevivalSlide29

Italianate

Two or three stories; typically asymmetrical

Low-pitched, hipped roof with wide overhanging eaves

Large eave brackets dominate cornice

Tall, narrow windows; paired and triple windows frequent; bay windows common

Windows frequently embellished with heavy crown molding or pediments in inverted U-shapePorches nearly universalPaired doorways common; large-pane glazing in door itself; arched doors; elaborate framing decorationsHigh-Style Elaborations:Square cupolas or towers

Horizontal belt courses and corner quoins

Balconies with balustradesSlide30

ItalianateSlide31

Second Empire

Mansard roof with dormer windows on steep, lower slope

Molded cornices

Decorative brackets beneath eaves

Decorative details similar to Italianate (windows, doors, and porch)

Tall first-story windows; elaborate window surrounds (arched, hooded, pedimented, or dentiled)One or two-story bay windows commonFull porches common

Tall chimneys

Typically stone but also brick or wood frame with clapboard siding

High-Style Elaborations:

Rectangular or square towers, usually centered on the front façade

Ornate cast-iron cresting at roof ridges and towerSlide32

Second EmpireSlide33

Second Empire

Heck-Andrews House in Raleigh, NCSlide34

Queen Anne

Asymmetrical two or three-storied

Complex intersecting gabled or hipped roofs

Projecting upper floors

Bay windows, often cut away from upper stories

Extensive porches and verandas with turned porch posts and balustrade spindlesTowers, turretsMultitude of applied features such as brackets, roof cresting, and ornamental chimneysMixing of stylistic details from various architectural styles including reinterpreted classical formsTextured wall patterns including decorative shingles typicalLacy ornamentation around porch entries and at gable ends common

Windows often edged with leaded or colored glass

Rich, bold paint color schemesSlide35

Queen AnneSlide36

Twentieth centurySlide37

Colonial

Revival

Gable, Hipped, or Gambrel roofs

Accentuated front door with decorative pediment supported by pilasters or extended forward and supported by slender columns to form entry porch

Fanlights and sidelights common

Palladian windows commonCentered door; aligned double-hung sash windows One-story wings, usually with a flat roof and commonly embellished with a balustradeDormers, often with exaggerated, eclectic pedimentsSlide38

Colonial

RevivalSlide39

Tudor

Steeply pitched gable roofs

Playfully elaborate masonry chimneys (often with chimney pots)

Embellished doorways

Groupings of windows

Decorative half-timberingSlide40

TudorSlide41

Chateauesque

Round tower with conical roof

Steeply pitched hipped or gable roof, often with cresting

Tall chimneys with decorative caps

Round arch or flattened basket-handle arch entry

Multiple dormersQuatrefoil or arched tracery decorative elements

Balustrade terrace

Usually of masonry (stone or brick) constructionSlide42

ChateauesqueSlide43

Mission

 Mission-shaped roof parapet

Wide, overhanging eaves with decorative brackets

Red clay roof tiles

Arched doorways

Deep window openings without framing, except the sill

Quatrefoil windowsSlide44

Prairie

Originated by Frank Lloyd Wright

Horizontal lines - everything about a prairie home is horizontally oriented.

Simple materials - uses natural stains to let the character of wood show through.

Cantilevered, flat roofs - long, horizontal roofs on prairie houses had a large, straight overhang, sometimes up to four feet.

Rows of windows - often features several windows in a row, placed together for the appearance of a glass wall.Organic patterns - Prairie windows often had window mullions, or dividers, with geometric patternsSlide45

PrairieSlide46

Craftsman/Bungalow

Low-pitched gable roof

Front porch with tapered columns

Doors have glass panes in the upper third of the door

Multi-pane windows with no mullions on the bottom sash

Single, wide dormersMixture of materials usually clapboard and stoneExposed rafters under wide eavesSlide47

Craftsman/BungalowSlide48

International

Rectangular forms

Flat roof

Lack of ornamentation or decorative details

Ribbon windows

Curtain walls of glassCantilevered projectionsSmooth wall surfacesAsymmetrical facadeSlide49

InternationalSlide50

Mid Twentieth century to presentSlide51

Ranch

Asymmetrical

Spreading, horizontal orientation

Hipped or gabled roof often with wide eaves

Logical, open floor plan in a rectangular, L-, or U-shaped configuration

Minimal ornamentationGood quality construction using natural materialsAttached garagesNew design elements such as sliding glass doors, large plate glass picture windows, and Formica countertopsSlide52

RanchSlide53

Contemporary Homes

Popular among architects in the 1950s, 60s, and early 70s.

Not defined by a single shape or style.

May have wide eave overhangs, flat or low-pitched roofs with low gables, exposed supporting beams, and unusual placement and shapes of windows.

This style home is designed to integrate the landscape around it.

Sometimes called the American InternationalSlide54

ContemporarySlide55

Split-Level Homes

Has three or four levels

Can be arranged in many ways.

Developed for sloping lots, occasionally built on flat lots

Advantage: traffic into the social, guide, and service areas can be separated easily.

Three levels of living space, each connected by short flights or stairsHave basements, which adds a fourth levelTraditional decorative details, but it’s a modern homeUsually designed to take advantage of a sloping lotProvides a space of a ranch home without requiring as large of a lot. Slide56

Split-Level HomesSlide57

Shed Homes

Appeared during the 1960s.

Roof

line is made up of a combination of steeply pitched shed roofs.

Roof may slope at a different angle and face in a different direction.

Usually wood shingle or board sliding applied horizontally, vertically, or diagonally. Windows are normally small and placed asymmetrically.Slide58

Shed HomesSlide59

Traditional

After

the WWII

anyone was able to buy a house

Can

be Cape Cod in styleBasic and are small1 or 2 storiesHas a long drive waySlide60

A-Frame Homes

Gable roof that extends to ground level on two sides

Eliminates the need for separate walls.

Usually used for vacation homes.

Advantage: ease in building and the broad range of building materials that can be used during construction

Disadvantage: odd interior space created by its designSlide61

A-FrameSlide62

Geodesic

Dome

Ideal

for emergency and mobile shelter such as military camps

Factory built, bolted together on site.

One or two story structuresBuilt of triangular frames that are joined to form a self-supporting roof and walls.Frame is metal or plastic covered by either a flexible skin or rigid panels.Dome is structurally self-supporting, interior walls are not needed.Low cost, energy-saving homeLess building material needed.Slide63

Geodesic Dome Homes