Abdominal Assessment

Abdominal Assessment Abdominal Assessment - Start

2017-03-13 124K 124 0 0

Abdominal Assessment - Description

Lisa . Pezik. , RN, . BScN. Clinical Educator. Objectives. Review basic anatomy of the abdominal system.. Discuss assessment techniques.. Critically think through common problems.. Discuss treatment plans for these problems.. ID: 524057 Download Presentation

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Abdominal Assessment




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Presentations text content in Abdominal Assessment

Slide1

Abdominal Assessment

Lisa Pezik, RN, BScNClinical Educator

Slide2

Objectives

Review basic anatomy of the abdominal system.

Discuss assessment techniques.

Critically think through common problems.

Discuss treatment plans for these problems.

Slide3

GI System

Gastrointestinal System

30 Feet Long

Muscles, vessels, organs

From mouth to anus

Turns food into energy, growth, cell repair

H

ormones of digestion

Gastrin

Secretin

Cholecystokinin

Gastric inhibitory peptide

Slide4

Hormones

Slide5

Digestion

Slide6

Outside Muscles

Slide7

Inside Muscles

MusclesSupport the abdominal cavityProtect organsWeakness leads to:HerniasDistentionPostural problemsBack painRisk of Falls

Slide8

Vessels

Arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart.Veins carry de-oxygenated blood to the heart.

Slide9

Organs

Upper GIEsophagusPancreasGallbladderStomachSpleenLiverDuodenumLower GISmall IntestineLarge IntestineAppendix

Slide10

Functions of The Organs

Esophagus

Carries liquids and saliva to the stomach

Pancreas

Digestive enzymes to control insulin and glucagon

Stomach

Secretes enzymes to digest food

Muscles churn to process food

Pyloric sphincter pushes food to the small intestine

Slide11

Functions of the Organs

SpleenStores and produces lymphocytes to aid immunityGallbladderAids in fat digestion and stores bileLiverBile productionImmune functionsBlood clottingStores sugarMetabolizes drugs

Slide12

Functions of the Organs

Small intestineChemical digestion occursAbsorbs nutrients21 feet longLarge intestineAbsorbs water and lubricates contentsNeutralizes acids and bacteria5 feet longAppendix4 inches longJunction of small and large intestineStores good bacteria in the gut?

Slide13

Assessment Basics

InspectionAuscultationPercussionPalpation

Slide14

Inspection and Palpation

Look for distention or un-evenness of the umbilicusPalpate 1cm for any painful areasMeasure abdominal growth if applicable

Slide15

Organs Per Quadrant

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Auscultation

Where to begin

Start in RUQ and listen 2 minutes in each quadrant

Absent, hypo/hyper/

normoactive

Normal sounds in the small intestine

High pitched and gurgling

Normal sounds in the large intestine

Low pitched and rumbling

Normal Rate

5-35 sounds a minute

Slide17

Percussion

Percuss all quadrants for dullness

Percuss for

tympany

Low drum like sound caused by gas

Percuss for hyper-

ressonance

Increased lower pitch due to distended bowel

Percuss bladder volume

Fullness causes pressure upwards

Slide18

Interpretation of Results

Slide19

Constipation

Mild ConcernInability to pass stool, hard stool, or self impactionComplaints of fullnessCan cause hemorrhoids

Slide20

Constipation

Moderate ConcernLeaking, small stoolsCramping, bloatingStrainingBlood tinged stoolVomitingFecal impactionA large lump of dry stool Caused by chronic constipation

Slide21

Stool

Slide22

Constipation

Severe Concern

Bowel Obstruction

Complete blockage of the small and large intestines

Distended tympanic abdomen

Tachypnea, Tachycardia, Low BP

Cramping, Pain, Tenderness

Vomiting

Diarrhea

Bloody Stools

Absent or hyperactive bowel sounds

Slide23

Small Bowel Obstruction

Slide24

Large Bowel Obstruction

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Ascites

Build up of fluid in the abdomenHigh pressure in the blood vessels of the liverLow levels of albuminCaused by:CancerLiver failurePancreatitisCHFPortal Vein Thrombosis

Slide26

Peritonitis

Inflammation of the peritoneum causing severe pain

Slide27

Points to Ponder

Pain = InflammationDullness with percussion = Fullness of normal OR abnormal structureCrepitus = Diverticulitis or organ perforationBruising = Hemorrhage or injury

Slide28

Questions?


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