Cloud Computing Cloud Computing

Cloud Computing - PowerPoint Presentation

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Uploaded On 2016-04-26

Cloud Computing - PPT Presentation

Dr Peter DePasquale The College of New Jersey Computer Science Overview Introduction to cloud computing Introduction to Amazon Web Services AWS HandsOn portion Work with your own virtual server via my AWS account ID: 294392

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Cloud Computing

Dr. Peter DePasquale


College of New Jersey

Computer ScienceSlide2


Introduction to cloud computing

Introduction to Amazon Web Services (AWS)

Hands-On portion

Work with your own virtual server (via my AWS account)

Execute AWS sample Java programs that use

Simple Storage Service (S3)

Simple Email Service (SES)

DynamoDB (



Execute PHP-based address book applicationSlide3

Introduction to Cloud ComputingSlide4

Introduction to Cloud ComputingMajor players includeSlide5

Introduction to Cloud Computing

Major users include products / companies such asSlide6

Old SchoolSlide7

New SchoolSlide8

Wikipedia on AWS

Amazon Web Services (abbreviated AWS) is a collection of remote computing services (also called web services) that together make up a cloud computing platform, offered over the Internet by




most central and well-known of these services are Amazon EC2 and Amazon S3. The service is advertised as providing a large computing capacity (potentially many servers) much faster and cheaper than building a physical server farm







Amazon’s History with respect to the cloud



services from



XML/SOAP capability to

query products

, prices, etc. to

include to

your web site~2006 post holiday sales: capacity >

demandResell services (storage, network, computation, email, etc.)Slide10

Overview of AWS services


+ services in 5 service areas





Compute & Networking

Storage & Content Delivery Network (CDN)


Deployment and Management

Application ServicesSlide11

Overview of AWS services

5 service areas

Compute & Networking

EC2, Auto Scaling, Auto Load Balancing, Elastic Map Reduce

Storage & Content Delivery Network (CDN)

S3, Glacier, Elastic Block Store


Relational Database Service, DynamoDB, Redshift,


Overview of AWS services

5 service areas

Deployment and Management

Identity and Access Management, Cloud Watch, Elastic Beanstalk, Cloud Formation, Data Pipeline

Application Services

Simple Email Service, Simple Queue Service, Simple Notification Service, Cloud Search, Flexible Payments Service, Elastic TranscoderSlide13

AWS services – EC2

Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2)

…is a web service that provides resizable compute capacity in the cloud. It is designed to make web-scale computing easier for developers


Virtual Servers

Various configurations (O/S, memory, CPUs)

Pay for what you use – computing power/time & bandwidth (outbound)

Pricing: micro


nstances (613 MB memory, up to 2 cores): $0.02 /


AWS services – EC2


Compute Cloud (EC2)


compute instances, each with

8 cores

and 7GB of RAM, for a total of 30,472 cores, 26.7TB of RAM and 2PB (petabytes) of disk space. Security was ensured with HTTPS, SSH and 256-bit AES encryption, and the cluster ran across data centers in three Amazon regions in the United States and Europe.”








Created for a “Top 5


” company

The cost? $1,279 per hourSlide15

AWS services – S3

Simple Storage Service (S3)

…provides a simple web services interface that can be used to store and retrieve any amount of data, at any time, from anywhere on the web



to provide 99.99% durability and 99.99% availability of objects over a given


Pricing: $0.095 / GB / month for first 1TB, data transfer, request pricing (get, put, copy, list…)Slide16

AWS services – SES

Simple Email Service (SES)


a highly scalable and cost-effective bulk and transactional email-sending service for businesses and developers


Pricing from:

First 2,000 emails free each day from EC2 / elastic beanstalk

$0.10 / thousand emails

$0.12 / GB of attachments

Subject to data transfer (outbound) pricingSlide17

AWS services – DYNAMODB


…is a fully managed


database service that provides fast and predictable performance with seamless scalability


Hash table built on solid state drives (SSD)

Pricing from:

Write: $0.0065 / hour for every 10 units of write (1 write/sec of 1KB)

Read: $0.065 / hour for every 50 units of read (1 read/sec of 1KB)

First 100MB of storage per month is free, $1.00 / GB thereafter


to data transfer (outbound)


Accessing the Services

Web-based AWS “console”

Various APIs for programmatic use


.NET / Visual Studio







Amazon’s Topology

AWS is broken across 10 geographic “regions” around the world.

These 10 regions are placed in distinct areas:

North America

South America

Europe/Middle East/Africa

Asia PacificSlide20

Amazon’s TopologyAWS Regions

US East (Virginia)

US West (No. California)

US West (Oregon)


(US Northwest)

São Paulo

EU (Ireland)

Asia Pacific (Singapore)

Asia Pacific (Sydney)

Asia Pacific (Tokyo)

Asia Pacific (Beijing)Slide21

Amazon’s TopologyAWS Regions

Each region is housed in a single country and all data and services stay within the region

Regions are on different tectonic plates

Each region has multiple “availability zones” – data centers

Availability zones (AZs) are distinct and isolated from each other; prevents outages from crossing zonesSlide22

Amazon’s TopologyAWS Regions

Some services (S3,


) operate across availability zones

Some services can be configured to replicate across zones to spread demand and avoid downtimeSlide23

A Word About Costs

Each service has it’s own cost(s); see the product page for detail.

Costs really do go down, not up!

Costs vary by region based on hardware, power, personnel, etc.


$100 per student when used for a class

Academic grants for research

Free Tier…Slide24

Free Tier

12 months of limited free service for new users


1 EC2 micro instance 24x7 (750


/ mo.) (Windows or Linux)



of load balancer

30GB Elastic Block Storage (EBS; block device)

1,000,000 Simple Queue (SQS) requests / mo.

5GB Simple Storage Service (S3) / mo.15GB Data Transfer (outbound) / mo.2,000 email messages sent / day

And more…Slide25


Cloud computing is changing how companies develop and deploy applications - web-based and otherwise

Pay for what you use

Scale up or down based on demand

Great for startups

Cheap storage!Slide26


Amazon has a robust offering of services

“5 years ahead of everyone else”

Broad API to use for Java, PHP, JavaScript, .NET,


, Python, Ruby, Android

Platform lock-in?

Alternative: OpenStack

Many alternatives in space (Dell, Microsoft, HP, Rackspace, …)Slide27


1 – Introduction


Cloud Computing: Theory and Practice. Chapter 1Slide28

Network-centric computing

Information processing can be done more efficiently on large farms of computing and storage systems accessible via the Internet.

Grid computing – initiated by the National Labs in the early 1990s; targeted primarily at scientific computing.

Utility computing – initiated in 2005-2006 by IT companies and targeted at enterprise computing.

The focus of utility computing is on the business model for providing computing services; it often requires a cloud-like infrastructure.

Cloud computing is a path to utility computing embraced by major IT companies including: Amazon, HP, IBM, Microsoft, Oracle, and others.


Cloud Computing: Theory and Practice. Chapter 1Slide29

Network-centric content

Content: any type or volume of media, be it static or dynamic, monolithic or modular, live or stored, produced by aggregation, or mixed.


Future Internet

will be content-centric.

The creation and consumption of audio and visual content is likely to transform the Internet to support increased quality in terms of resolution, frame rate, color depth, stereoscopic information.


Cloud Computing: Theory and Practice. Chapter 1Slide30

Network-centric computing and content




scale simulations in science and engineering require large volumes of data. Multimedia streaming transfers large volume of data.




large volumes of data requires high bandwidth networks.

Low-latency networks for data streaming, parallel computing, computation steering.

The systems are accessed using

thin clients

running on systems with limited resources, e.g., wireless devices such as smart phones and tablets.

The infrastructure should support some form of

workflow management.

Cloud Computing: Theory and Practice. Chapter 1


Evolution of concepts and technologies

The concepts and technologies for network-centric computing and content evolved along the years


The web and the semantic web - expected to support composition of services. The web is dominated by unstructured or semi-structured data, while the semantic web advocates inclusion of sematic content in web pages.

The Grid - initiated in the early 1990s by National Laboratories and Universities; used primarily for applications in the area of science and engineering.

Peer-to-peer systems.

Computer clouds.

Cloud Computing: Theory and Practice. Chapter 1


Cloud computing

Uses Internet technologies to offer scalable

and elastic


The term

elastic computing

refers to the ability of

dynamically acquiring computing resources


supporting a variable workload


The resources used for these services can be metered

and the

users can be charged only for the resources they used


The maintenance and security are ensured by service providers


The service providers can operate more efficiently due

to specialization

and centralization.


Cloud Computing: Theory and Practice. Chapter 1Slide33

Cloud computing (cont’d)

Lower costs for the cloud service provider are passed to the cloud users


Data is stored:

closer to the site where it is used.

in a device and in

a location

-independent manner


The data storage strategy can increase reliability, as well as security, and can lower communication costs.

Cloud Computing: Theory and Practice. Chapter 1


Types of clouds

Public Cloud

- the infrastructure is made available to the general public or a large industry group and is owned by the organization selling cloud services


Private Cloud

– the infrastructure is operated solely for an organization


Community Cloud

- the infrastructure is shared by several organizations and supports a community that has shared concerns


Hybrid Cloud

- composition of two or more clouds (public, private, or community) as unique entities but bound by standardized technology that enables data and application portability.

Cloud Computing: Theory and Practice. Chapter 1


The “


about cloud computing

Resources, such as CPU cycles, storage, network bandwidth, are shared


When multiple applications share a system, their peak demands for resources are not synchronized thus,

multiplexing leads to a higher resource utilization


Resources can be aggregated to support data-intensive applications


Data sharing facilitates collaborative activities. Many applications require multiple types of analysis of shared data sets and multiple decisions carried out by groups scattered around the globe



Cloud Computing: Theory and Practice. Chapter 1Slide36

More “


about cloud computing

Eliminates the initial investment costs for a private computing infrastructure and the maintenance and operation costs


Cost reduction

: concentration

of resources creates the opportunity to pay as you go

for computing.


: the

ability to accommodate workloads with very large peak-to-average ratios


User convenience

: virtualization

allows users to operate in familiar environments rather than in idiosyncratic ones.

Cloud Computing: Theory and Practice. Chapter 1


Why cloud computing could be successful when other paradigms have failed?

It is in a better position to

exploit recent advances

in software, networking, storage, and processor technologies promoted by the same companies who provide cloud services.

It is

focused on enterprise computing

; its adoption by industrial organizations, financial institutions, government, and so on could have a huge impact on the economy.

A cloud consists of a


set of hardware and software resources.

The resources are in a


administrative domain (AD). Security, resource management, fault-tolerance, and quality of service are less challenging than in a heterogeneous environment with resources in multiple ADs.


Cloud Computing: Theory and Practice. Chapter 1Slide38

Challenges for cloud computing

Availability of service; what happens when the service provider cannot deliver



of services

, data organization, user interfaces available at different service providers limit user mobility; once a customer is hooked to one provider it is hard to move to another. Standardization efforts at NIST


Data confidentiality and auditability, a serious problem


Data transfer bottleneck;


applications are data-intensive.


Cloud Computing: Theory and Practice. Chapter 1Slide39

More challenges

Performance unpredictability, one of the consequences of resource sharing.

How to use resource virtualization and performance isolation for



How to support elasticity, the ability to scale up and down quickly


Resource management



self-organization and self-

management the



Security and confidentiality

; major




these challenges

provides good research opportunities!!

Cloud Computing: Theory and Practice. Chapter 1


Cloud Computing: Theory and Practice. Chapter 1


Cloud delivery models

Software as a Service (



Platform as a Service (




as a Service (



Cloud Computing: Theory and Practice. Chapter 1


Software-as-a-Service (SaaS)

Applications are supplied by the service provider.

The user does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure or individual application capabilities.

Services offered include:

Enterprise services such as: workflow management, group-ware and collaborative, supply chain, communications, digital signature, customer relationship management (CRM), desktop software, financial management, geo-spatial, and search.

Web 2.0 applications such as: metadata management, social networking, blogs, wiki services, and portal services.

Not suitable for real-time applications or for those where data is not allowed to be hosted externally.

Examples: Gmail, Google search engine.

Cloud Computing: Theory and Practice. Chapter 1


Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS)

Allows a cloud

user to

deploy consumer-created or acquired applications using programming languages and tools supported by the service provider.

The user:

Has control over the deployed applications and, possibly, application hosting environment configurations.

Does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including network, servers, operating systems, or storage.

Not particularly useful when:

The application must be portable.

Proprietary programming languages are used.

The hardware and software must be customized to improve the performance of the application.

Cloud Computing: Theory and Practice. Chapter 1


Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS)

The user is able to deploy and run arbitrary software, which can include operating systems and applications


The user does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure but has control over operating systems, storage, deployed applications, and possibly limited control of some networking components, e.g., host firewalls.

Services offered by this delivery model include

: server

hosting, Web servers, storage, computing hardware, operating systems, virtual instances, load balancing, Internet access, and bandwidth provisioning.

Cloud Computing: Theory and Practice. Chapter 1


Cloud Computing: Theory and Practice. Chapter 1


Cloud activities necessary to support 3 delivery models

Service management and provisioning including




Service provisioning.

Call center.

Operations management.

Systems management.




and accounting, asset


SLA management.

Technical support

and backups


Cloud Computing: Theory and Practice. Chapter 1


Cloud activities necessary to support 3 delivery models

Security management including:







Intrusion prevention


Intrusion detection.

Virus protection.




security, incident



control, audit and trails, and firewalls.

Cloud Computing: Theory and Practice. Chapter 1


Cloud activities necessary to support 3 delivery models

Customer services such as:

Customer assistance and on-line help.


Business intelligence.


Customer preferences.


Integration services including:

Data management.


Cloud Computing: Theory and Practice. Chapter 1


NIST cloud reference model

Cloud Computing: Theory and Practice. Chapter 1


Ethical issues

Paradigm shift

with implications

on computing ethics:

The control is relinquished to third party services.

The data is stored on multiple sites administered by several organizations.

Multiple services interoperate across the network.


Unauthorized access.

Data corruption.

Infrastructure failure, and service unavailability.

Cloud Computing: Theory and Practice. Chapter 1



Systems can span the boundaries of multiple organizations and cross the security borders


The complex structure of cloud services can make it difficult to determine who is responsible in case something undesirable happens


Identity fraud and theft are made possible by the unauthorized access to personal data in circulation and by new forms of dissemination through social networks and they could also pose a danger to cloud computing.

Cloud Computing: Theory and Practice. Chapter 1


Privacy issues

Cloud service providers have already collected petabytes of sensitive personal information stored in data centers around the world. The acceptance of cloud computing therefore will be determined by privacy issues addressed by these companies and the countries where the data centers are located.

Privacy is affected by cultural differences; some cultures favor privacy,

others emphasize

community. This leads to an ambivalent attitude towards privacy in the Internet which is a global system.

Cloud Computing: Theory and Practice. Chapter 1


Cloud vulnerabilities

Clouds are affected by malicious attacks and failures of the infrastructure, e.g., power failures.

Such events can affect the Internet domain name servers and prevent access to a cloud or can directly affect the clouds:

in 2004 an attack at Akamai caused a domain name outage and a major blackout that affected Google, Yahoo, and other sites.

in 2009, Google was the target of a denial of service attack which took down Google News and Gmail for several days;

in 2012 lightning caused a prolonged down time at Amazon.

XMAS eve 2012 – ELBs failed (see



Cloud Computing: Theory and Practice. Chapter 1