SLEEP - RELATED BREATHING

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DISO. R. DERS. Sleep Related Breathing Disorders. Primary Central Apnea. Central Apnea Due to . Cheyne. Stokes Breathing. Central Apnea Due to High Altitude Periodic Breathing. Central Apnea Due to Medical Condition Not . ID: 776665 Download Presentation

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SLEEP - RELATED BREATHING




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Presentations text content in SLEEP - RELATED BREATHING

Slide1

SLEEP

-

RELATED

BREATHING

DISO

R

DERS

Slide2

Sleep Related Breathing Disorders

Primary Central Apnea

Central Apnea Due to

Cheyne

Stokes Breathing

Central Apnea Due to High Altitude Periodic Breathing

Central Apnea Due to Medical Condition Not

Cheyne

Stokes

Central Apnea Due to Drug or Substance

Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Sleep Related Hypoventilation/Hypoxemic Syndromes

Sleep Related Hypoventilation/Hypoxemia Due to Medical Condition

Due to pulmonary

parenchymal

or vascular pathology

Due to lower airways obstruction

Due to neuromuscular & chest wall disorders

Other Sleep Related Breathing Disorders

Sleep apnea/Sleep related breathing disorder, unspecified

Slide3

Primary Central Sleep Apnea

Patient reports at least one of the following:

Excessive daytime sleepiness

Frequent arousals and awakenings during sleep or insomnia complaints

Awakening short of breath

Polysomnography

shows 5 or more central apneas per hour of sleep

Slide4

Primary Central Sleep Apnea

Key Points

Caused by instability of the respiratory control system in the transition from wakefulness to sleep

Tend to occur in patients with high

ventilatory

responsiveness to CO

2

lower PaCO

2

levels exist (close to apnea threshold)

Treatment (recommended):

Adaptive

Servoventilation

(ASV

):

Unlike

conventional sleep disorder breathing therapies such as CPAP for CSA, adaptive

servoventilation

treats complex sleep apnea syndrome and central sleep apnea, normalizes breathing, completely suppressing CSA and/or

Cheyne

-Stokes respiration (CSR)

and improves sleep architecture (the amount of time the patient spends in slow-wave and REM sleep increases).

Slide5

Cheyne Stokes Breathing Pattern

Polysomnography

shows

at

least 10 central apneas and

hypopneas

per hour in which the

hyperpnea

has a crescendo-decrescendo pattern of tidal volume accompanied by frequent arousals from sleep and derangement of sleep

structure

The

breathing disorder occurs in association with a serious medical illness, such as heart failure, stroke, or renal failure

Slide6

Cheyne Stokes Breathing Pattern

Key

Points

Usually in NREM, better in REM

Typically occurs at transition from wakefulness to non-REM sleep and during stages 1 and 2; tends to dissipate and slow wave sleep and REM

Arousals occurred termination apneas

Seen in males, >60 yrs.

Atrial

fib and

hypocapnea

frequently seen

Awake PaCO

2

of 38 mm/Hg or less

Moderate oxygen

desaturations

: drops in SpO

2

to 80-85%

Treatment (recommended):

Adaptive

Servoventilation

(ASV):

Unlike conventional sleep disorder breathing therapies such as CPAP for CSA, adaptive

servoventilation

treats complex sleep apnea syndrome and central sleep apnea, normalizes breathing, completely suppressing CSA and/or

Cheyne

-Stokes respiration (CSR)

and improves sleep architecture (the amount of time the patient spends in slow-wave and REM sleep increases).

Slide7

Central Sleep Apnea Due to Drug or Substance

The patient has been taking long acting

opioid

regularly for at least 2 months

Polysomnography

shows

a central apnea index of > 5 or periodic breathing (at

least 10 central apneas and

hypopneas

per hour

in which the

hyperpnea

has

a crescendo-decrescendo pattern of tidal volume accompanied by frequent arousals from sleep and derangement of sleep

structure)

Key Points

Most commonly associated with methadone but other narcotic agents have been implicated

Slide8

Adult Obstructive Sleep Apnea

At least one of the following applies:

The patient complains of EDS, fatigue, or insomnia

Patient wakes up Breath-holding, gasping, or choking

Bed partner reports loud snoring were breathing interruptions

Polysomnography

shows the following:

>

5

scorable

respiratory events per hour

Evidence of respiratory effort during all or portion of each respiratory event

OR

Polysomnography

shows the following:

>

15

scorable

respiratory events per hour

Evidence of respiratory effort during all or portion of each respiratory event

Slide9

KEY POINTSIncreased incidence of morning headaches, hypertension, EDSEvents 10-30 sec. long but can be a minute or moreEvents worse in REM due to skeletal muscle atoniaAssociated with desats from 1% to >40%Longer in duration and more severe desats in REMSnoring and excessive daytime sleepinessWorse with alcohol consumption & increase in weightAt risk for systemic hypertension and type II diabetes

Adult Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Slide10

Treatment OptionsContinuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is gold standardOral appliancesMandibular advancement devicesTongue stabilizing devicesOral/nasal surgeryUPPP Mandibular Advancement SurgeryBody repositioning therapyWeight loss

Adult Obstructive Sleep Apnea


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