The Cognition of Scale in Human Search Problems and

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Slide1

The Cognition of Scale in Human Search Problems and Wayfinding Strategy

Thomas J. PingelNorthern Illinois University

Victor R. SchinaziETH Zürich

Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers, Tampa, FL, April 11, 2014.

Session: Cognition

, Behavior, and

Representation I - Spatial

Cognition and

Wayfinding

Behavior

Slide2

Strategy

What is strategy?Distinctions between strategic and systematicsearch

and memorization strategystrategy and performancePredictors of spatial strategy

Environmental spatial ability

Personality factors

Scale

Slide3

How do the strategies that an individual uses to explore a room affect his or her cognitive

map?Strategy type changed between trials, and overall time was lower.

But, no clear improvement in object location recall between trials.

Tellevik

(1992)

Slide4

As measured by object learning performance, which strategies are most effective?

Good performers had twice the number of object-to-object visits.Gridline search strategies were almost never used.Poor

performers were observed to use perimeter strategies nearly twice as often, but verbally reported using fewer.Gaunet and Thinus-Blanc (1996) found strategy not related to IQ.

Hill et al. (1993)

Slide5

How would sighted individuals solve it?

Vision helps coordinate search, but an introduced lack of vision increases novelty and difficulty.

Slide6

Method

Find and remember the locations of four invisible objects, whose positions are marked only with audio cues.3 Scales of Search20 m2

, 250 m2, 1000m2Position tracked withLaser-based system indoorshigh-grade GPS outdoors

Afterward, indicate position via compass and sketch

Self-report based measures of

environmental spatial ability and strategic disposition

48 total participants

Slide7

Slide8

Slide9

Scale and Multiple Psychologies of SpaceMontello (1993)

Figuralsmaller than the bodyDirectly perceived, no locomotion required

Vistalarger than the bodydirectly perceived, no locomotion requiredEnvironmental

larger

than the

bodydirectly perceived, locomotion required

Geographicalmuch larger than the bodylearned via maps or models

Slide10

Strategy Types

Search strategy; human-coded (3 independent judges, 2/3 agree)ScanlineA series of sequential, parallel transects

PerimeterA continuous search of the perimeter of the spaceTask strategy; machine-coded (based on track data)Search (%)

Movement to an object not previously found

Localization (%)

Movement to finely fix the position of an object

Reinforcement (%)Direct movement between previously found objects

Slide11

Slide12

Slide13

Larger spaces require longer (total) searches.

Spearman’s r(48) = 0.47; p < .001

Slide14

The composition of the search changes with scale;significantly so for search (p < .001) and reinforcement (p < .001).

Slide15

Type of search strategy changes with

scale, significantly so for scanline (p=.01) and perimeter (p<.001)

Slide16

Index measures as predictors

SBSOD predictsTotal time and distanceObject location recall (via model placement)But notSearch or Task strategy

Strategic Disposition Index predictsObject location recall (via model placement)But notTotal time and distanceSearch or Task strategy

Slide17

Strategy and performance

Controlling for scale, type of search strategy (scanline, perimeter) does not impact:Pointing / placement performance

Total search distance or timeExplicit search distance or time

Slide18

Strategy ≠ systematic search.

Strategy describes methods applied to a goal.The goal is not (or may not be) to reduce mean search distance (or time).It may be to solve the problem within an {acceptable, predictable, satisfactory} level of cost.

Slide19

Mean time is higher for systematic searchers.

But, variability tends to be lower.Systematic searching may be

related to risk aversion.

Slide20

ConclusionsStrategy is not equivalent to either systematic search or performance.

Scale is a strong determinant of both search and task strategy.The difference in strategy observable at vista scale indicates that refinements to Montello’s (1993) typology may be needed.

Slide21

Acknowledgments

NIU students Ben Maloney and Stacey TerlepETH Zurich interns Dario Meloni

and Carina HoppenzUniversity of California Transportation Center for grant support

Gaunet

, F., &

Thinus

-Blanc, C. (1996). Early-blind subjects’ spatial abilities in the locomotor space: Exploratory strategies and reaction-to-change performance. Perception, 25(8), 967-981. Hegarty, M., Richardson, A. E., Montello, D. R., Lovelace, K., & Subbiah, I. (2002). Development of a Self-Report Measure of Environmental Spatial Ability. Intelligence, 30, 425-447.Hill, E.W., Rieser, J.J., Hill, M.M., Hill, M., Halpin, J., & Halpin, R. (1993). How persons with visual impairments explore novel spaces: strategies of good and poor performers. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 87(8), 295-301.Montello, D. R. (1993). Scale and multiple psychologies of space. In A. U. Frank, & I. Campari (Eds.), Spatial information theory: a theoretical basis for GIS. Proceedings of COSIT ’93. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 716 ( pp. 312–321). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.Pingel, T. J. (2012). Characterizing the Role of Strategic Disposition and Orientation to Risk in Wayfinding. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 15(4), 427-437.Tellevik, J.M. (1992). Influence of spatial exploration patterns of cognitive mapping by blindfolded sighted persons. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 92, 221 -224.References

Slide22

Sex Differences of Index Measures

Self-report of environmental spatial ability was higher for men (M=6.0) than women (M=5.5)Effect size (Cohen’s d=0.5) consistent with the literature (

Hegarty et al., 2006)Self-report of strategic disposition was higher for men (M=5.4) than women (M=3.9)Effect size (d=1.1)

Meta-analysis across several studies suggests these are linked

r(134) = 0.48, p<.001

Difference in this male/sdi

population with respect to norm

Slide23

30 participantscongenitally blind

adventitiously blindblindfolded sightedExplore, then, on a later trial, detect a change to the layout of objectsCongenitally blind performed worseUsed cyclical visits

Adventitiously blind and blindfolded sightedUsed back-and-forth visitsPerformance and strategy not linked to IQ

Gaunet

and

Thinus

-Blanc (1996)

Slide24

The Santa Barbara Sense of Direction Scale (Hegarty

et al., 2002)1. I am very good at giving directions.

2. I have a poor memory for where I left things.3. I am very good at judging distances.4. My "sense of direction" is very good.5. I tend to think of my environment in terms of cardinal directions (N, S, E, W).

6. I very easily get lost in a new city.

7. I enjoy reading maps.

8. I have trouble understanding directions.

9. I am very good at reading maps.10. I don't remember routes very well while riding as a passenger in a car.11. I don't enjoy giving directions.12. It's not important to me to know where I am.13. I usually let someone else do the navigational planning for long trips.14. I can usually remember a new route after I have traveled it only once.15. I don't have a very good "mental map" of my environment.Correlates well withPointing to landmarks at a variety of scalesBlindfolded updatingLearning environments from Virtual Environments and videoBut notVandenberg and Kuse mental rotation testEmbedded figures test

Slide25

The Strategic Disposition Index(Pingel. 2012)

Frequency

of

and

affinity

for strategic thinking.Able to externalize or explain strategy.Correlated to preference for orientation and route-based wayfinding strategies.

Slide26

Slide27

Sex effects on strategy selection

Controlling for scale, no sex effect forSearch strategy: scanline, perimeter, ISS

Task strategy: search, localize, reinforceOverall search performance: time & distanceObject learning performance: pointing & placement

Slide28

Vision and Search Strategy


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