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Slide1

Internet of Things

Solomon Walker & David JerkovicSlide2

What is the Internet of Things (IOT)?

The Internet of Things is the idea that everyday objects can be embedded with electronics that connect them to the internet or local networks creating a network inhabited by objects releasing and sharing data.

The Global Standards Initiative on Internet of Things defines it as “a global infrastructure for the information society, enabling advanced services by interconnecting things based on existing and evolving interoperable information and communication technologies.

“Things” could be anything from cars, to smart cities, to medical biochips, to the lamps in your home.

Experts believe that the IOT could grow to 30 billion “things” by 2020Slide3
Slide4

How did the IOT begin?

The first internet-connected appliance (shown to the left) was a modified Coke machine at Carnegie Mellon University that could report its inventory and temperature of sodas!

Various ID techniques such as the Auto-ID center at MIT and Radio-frequency identification helped beckon larger IOT networks.Slide5

What industry says about IoT?Slide6

How does IOT work?

The system architecture will largely be event-driven, as certain parameters, when reached by sensors, would send an event prompting some response in another system.

For example, if your house using a smart thermometer system to heat it in the Winter, when the temperature falls below the threshold set by the user, digital sensors will trigger an event when the temperature they sense falls too low, turning the heating system on

IOT will rely heavily on IPv6 as the extra address space will be necessary to hold the enormous amount of extra devices connecting to the internet.Slide7

Architecture Layers of IoT InfrastructureSlide8

What can IOT be used for?Slide9

Diversity of IoT systemsSlide10

Applications: Media

It’s obvious that several media devices are becoming a huge part of the IOT

Every modern device that people use these days is connected to the internet

How the IOT benefits is the capture and categorization of the data collected from these devices

The data capture from these media devices via the IOT allows media industries to target consumers for advertising

In this example, Big Data and IOT work in conjunctionSlide11

Environmental Monitoring

When IOT is used with the environment, it is usually used to protect it

Water, soil, atmosphere conditions can continually be checked and recorded using sensors connected to the IOT

Wildlife monitoring can find the behavior and habitats of animals to further aid in protecting and conserving them

Natural emergency sensors can detect occurrences such as earthquakes and tsunamis and provide an early-warning system to protect people in disaster-prone areasSlide12

Infrastructure Management

Sensors imbedded in infrastructure such as roads, bridges, railway tracks, or power lines could be used to monitor those structures and determine if they are in need of repair or in danger of failureSlide13

Manufacturing

IOT is used extensively in manufacturing not only to sensor machines for repair and such, but to do incredibly detailed and high-level data collection and analysis including, but not limited to maintenance prediction, process control, asset management, and statistical evaluation for maximum reliability

To the left is a pyramid showing the design architecture of cyber-physical systems-enabled manufacturing system.Slide14

Medical and Healthcare

IOT can allow sensors in hospitals and even in human bodies to connect to the internet and share data.

This allows doctors to see and act on data without intrusion (barring the initial insertion)

Also, these sensors can send signals for emergencies, hopefully allowing responders to act on the emergency quickly and efficiently to help the patient

“Smart beds” in hospitals can send out signals to keep nurses up to date with current patient status and alert them if anything goes wrongSlide15

Metropolitan Deployment

Cars connected to the IOT could report traffic data and help GPS navigation alter itself to help traffic decongest on the fly

Along with cars, several traffic controllers, such as stop lights and speed limit signs, could change their values and functions on the fly to help with current traffic

Sensors in cities could link up with people’s smartphones to help them with finding parking, environmental monitoring, and even to see an agenda for any city events

To the left, we see a digital speed limit sign that can change its value based on vehicle congestionSlide16

What are the issues with IOT?

At the moment, there is no technical standardization to help standardize the creation and connection to the IOT. This hinders the connection of new technologies to technologies already in place

As so many devices grow more connected to the IOT, many people are beginning to worry about a breach of their privacy.

Technology, such as chips and transmitters, in more and more objects means more of an environmental hazard if the objects are disposed of improperlySlide17

Operational aspects of IoT systems

Rapidly collects the data (requires capable back end, most likely Cloud-based with technology/database that can support big-data, e.g. Hadoop)

Visualization of the data is a challenge

Security is the challenge:

Security of the sensor

Security of the transport to gateway

Security of the gateway

Security of the transport to the database

Security of the databaseSlide18

Protocols

Service oriented approach – Device Profile for Web Services (DPWS)

Resource oriented approach – The Constrained Application Protocol (

CoAP

)

Message oriented approach – The MQ Telemetry Transport ProtocolSlide19

Device Profile for Web Services (DPWS) Slide20

The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP)Slide21

The MQ Telemetry Transport ProtocolSlide22

Protocols comparison

CoAP uses UDP

MQTT uses TCP

DPWS uses both TCP and UDP (TCP for device interactions, UDP for discovery)

MQTT and DPWS support TLS

CoAP supports DTLS

MQTT supports

QoS

, with 3 modes of delivery:

Fire and forget

Deliver at least once

Deliver exactly onceSlide23

C-CASP: Primer on IoT design

C-CASP

Cost effective, low energy consumption

Purpose:

A cloud-controlled system allowing users to monitor and view reports of the data generated by a network of wireless microcontrollers affixed with various environmental sensors.

Uses:

Multi-Platform Potential – Agriculture, Irrigation, Small Scale Mechanical, and anything else users that can think of within the scope of the Arduino peripherals and attachmentsSlide24

C-CASP: Technology used

Web Application

Front-end uses Bootstrap, CSS, HTML, JavaScript, and jQuery

Back-end uses Amazon Web Services for web server, application deployment, database hosting, and media storage; Python and Django framework

Raspberry Pi Gateway:

Raspbian Linux, shell scripting, Python

Microcontroller Nodes:

C/C++, Arduino libraries, RF librariesSlide25

C-CASP: context viewSlide26

References

https://www.forbes.com/sites/jacobmorgan/2014/05/13/simple-explanation-internet-things-that-anyone-can-understand/#7d5173dc1d09

https://www.wired.com/insights/2014/11/the-internet-of-things-bigger/

http://www.mckinsey.com/industries/high-tech/our-insights/the-internet-of-things

https://

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_of_things

Perkins E..

“Securing the Internet of Things”. Gartner. 12 May 2016. Web.

Stinson D. Lacher R. Jerkovic D. “C-CASP”. NCUR. 2016. Poster

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