CHAPTER 14

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CHAPTER 14 - Description

Time . for Mong0ls!!!. I. Mongol Empire of . Chinggis. Khan. Social Order. Nomadic . herded goats & sheep. specific breed of horse for well being & warfare. Basic Mongol Societal Unit: . Individual Family Tribes & Clan. ID: 326231 Download Presentation

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CHAPTER 14




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Presentations text content in CHAPTER 14

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CHAPTER 14

Time

for Mong0ls!!!

Slide2

I. Mongol Empire of Chinggis Khan

Social OrderNomadic herded goats & sheepspecific breed of horse for well being & warfareBasic Mongol Societal Unit: Individual Family Tribes & ClanClans could join together to face a threat, etc.leaders elected by free menusually strong militarilylose following if unable to support peoples

Making of a Great Warrior

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Making of a Great WarriorTemujin- young Mongol Grandfather Kabul Khan- famous warriorFather chief- diedHad few supportersTarget by rival clansOvercoming obstacles election as khagan in 1206He became who your book calls Chinggis KhanActually better known as . . .

Genghis Khan

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B. Building the War Machine

WarfareTrained from youth accustomed to killing & deathVariety of weapons: Short bow- could hit a target at 400 yds while ridingSoldiers- ALL CAVALRYTumens consisting of 10,000 warriorsSpecialized forces of spies, map makersExploding arrows, early bronze cannons

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D. Continued Assaults

Conquest under Genghis1207: First campaign of conquest against Xi Xia & Manchu JinWorse if you resisted- slaughter everyone (scholars, some artisans spared)all paid tributeSome trouble vs. Qin but beat them anywayacquired new weaponsExplosivesBamboo rocketsEtc.1219 Conquered Kara Khitai in Mongolia and Muslim Khwarazam Empire of Muhammad Shah IISecret Strategy: Feigned retreat as battle strategygained skills of Turkic horseman

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D.

Life under Mongols

Assaults were brutal, however leadership focused on rebuilding and harmony

Uniform legal code, written Mongol language

Religious tolerance

Encouraged artisan production, secured trade

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E. Death of Chinggis & Division of Empire

1226

Chinggis

turned East to finish slaughter of any remaining resistance in China

; died of battle injury in 1227

Empire divided among 3 sons and grandson,

Batu

Ogedei

(son) named great Khan; directed further expansion

Areas of China & Persia common property

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Four Khanates of Divided Mongol Empire

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II. Mongol Drive West- Russia and Europe

The Golden HordeRussia & EuropeBatu (Genghis’s grandson) began conquest 1236 Russian princes did not work together-lostTartars “people from hell” or locustsKiev resisted (utterly destroyed); Novgorod submitted (spared)Russia in BondagePrinces became vassals paying tributePeasants forced into serfdom for protectionTowns & Trade benefitedMoscow arose as Russia’s defender in 1380 @ Battle of Kulikova; Golden Horde defeated

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Effects of Mongols on Russian Society

Military Organization

Motive for Political Centralization

Formalized Russia

s Isolation from W. Europe; Renaissance & Reformation

Protected Russia from rising Poland, Lithuania, Hungary

Mongol Retreat from Europe

Europeans believed Mongols to be

Prester

John until 1240 with conquest of Hungary

Death of

Ogedei

caused Mongol retreat

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C. Mongol Assault on Islamic Homeland

Hulegu

(G. Khan grandson), ruler of the

Ilkhan

Khanate, captured Baghdad, murdered caliphate in 1258 (remember? End of _______ Empire?)

Devastated and terrified Muslim world

Mongols defeated 1260 by Egyptian slaves,

Mamluks

, with assistance of Christians

Hulegu

returned to central Asia with succession struggle

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III. Mongols in China- Part 2

Kubilai

Khan, led conquest of Song dynasty

1271 change empire name from Khanate to Yuan Dynasty

Limited Mongol interaction with China

Forbade Chinese from learning Mongol script; intermarriage

Military remained separate in traditional tent encampments

Social Order: Mongol, Muslim, North Chinese, Ethnic Chinese

Rebuffed Confucian Scholars,

But . . .

Kubilai

incorporated Chinese into Mongol culture

Built capital on ancient dynastic centers

Empire used Chinese calendar

Participated in Ancestor Worship

Slide13

Gender Roles & Chinese Culture

Mongol women

refused

footbinding

retained freedom of movement-hunting

Retained property rights

Kubilai

s

wife

Chabi

, influenced husbands leadership

Mongol Tolerance & Patronage

Kubilai

attracted foreign scholars, artists- (Marco Polo)

Muslim advisors advanced bureaucracy, astronomy, cartography, medicine

Insisted on Religious tolerance

Slide14

Mongol Social Policies & Scholar Resistance

Scholars despised Mongols

Refused to reinstate exam system-keep Confucians weak

Moved Artisans, Merchants, Actors up social hierarchy

Mongols promoted urban expansion, centers of trade

Pursued policies improving Peasants Plight

Increased crop lands

Restored granary system

Reduced peasant tax

Planned public education

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D. Fall of Yuan- HOW?

Failure of Military excursion Japan, Vietnam hurt INVINCIBILITY reputation

Leaders after

Kubilai

- corrupt, luxurious,

Song loyalists, Scholars, Secret Religious Sects organized uprisings

By 1350s, Mongols retreated as chaos reigned

Peace restored by

Ju

Yuanzhang

, peasant leader, with foundation of Ming dynasty

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IV. Mongol Global Connections

Taught new methods of warfareFacilitated trade networksElevated merchants, set precedents of overseas expansionCreated wealth, used to support artsTransmission of Bubonic plague from China to Europe

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