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Joseph J

Lewczak is a partner and Peter C Welch is an associate with the New York law firm Davis Gilbert LLP Legal Backgrounder Advocate for freedom and justice 2009 Massachusetts Avenue NW Washington DC 200

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Joseph J






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Thankfully for all involved, the snake escape was resolved quickly and peacefully. http://www.boston.com/news/odd/articles/2007/ 2007 Washington Legal Foundation ISBN 1056 3059initially seeking [Playboys] sites may, initially believe that unlabeled banner advertisements are links to [Playboys] sites or to sites affiliated with [Playboy.] Once they follow the instructions to click here, and they access the site, they may well realize that they are not at a [Playboy] sponsored site. However, they may be perfectly happy to remain on the competitors site, just as the court surmised that some searchers initially seeking Brookfields site would happily remain on West Coasts site. The Internet user will have reached the site because of defendants use of [Playboys] mark. Such use is actionable.Sale of Trademarks as Keywords and Resulting Fallout. With and as background, and businesses swarming to take advantage of search marketing, the battle lines had been drawn. Microsoft and Yahoo! have sought to steer clear of possible issues arising from sale of keywords; both have policies which forbid the purchase of keywords which violate the trademark rights of others. Market leader Google, however, allowed advertisers to bid on and purchase trademarks as keywords, and litigation swiftly followed. In Government Employees Insurance Co. v. Google, Inc., 330 F. Supp. 2d 700 (E.D. Va. 2004), GEICO alleged that Google violated the Lanham Act by selling advertising space triggered when users entered the GEICO trademark into Googles engine. The Eastern District of Virginia denied a Motion to Dismiss by Google, premised on the contention that sale of advertising triggered through the use of GEICOs mark did not comprise a use in commerce under the Lanham Act. In a further proceeding, despite finding that GEICO had failed to sufficiently prove a likelihood of confusion with regard to sponsored links which did not reference or include the GEICO mark (but were simply triggered when users searched for GEICO,) the court found that some of the sponsored links were likely to cause confusion.In the wake of , numerous courts have considered trademark infringement suits relating to search engine companies sale of trademarks as keywords. In the past year, the U.S. District Court for the District of New Jersey has twice refused to dismiss on summary judgment suits alleging trademark infringement as a result of sale of a companys trademark as a keyword. The District Court for the Northern District of Illinois recently granted a temporary restraining order barring a company from using terms trademarked by [their competitor], as keywords for any internet advertising serviThough a significant number of decisions have cut against their business model, Google has continued to vigorously defend trademark infringement suits relating to its sale of trademarks as keywords, and has refused to Rather than outlaw sale of trademarks as keywords, the company has instead barred advertisers from using the trademarks themselves in the text of sponsored links. So, a used car dealership not affiliated with Chevrolet may purchase the keyword Chevrolet and display advertising for its business along with search results for that trademark, so long as the advertisement itself does not include the Chevrolet trademark. Googles strategy is premised on the idea that even if a mark is used in commerce, infringement does not result absent a likelihood of confusion. In this vein, Google successfully won a motion to dismiss a trademark infringement suit in the Northern District of New York last fall. The court in that case found that the use of the trademark to trigger the complained-of advertisements did not comprise an unlawful trademark use in commerce, and that the advertisements themselves did not feature plaintiffs trademarks and were unlikely to cause confusion. 800-JR Cigar, Inc. v. Goto.com, 437 F. Supp. 2d 273 (D.N.J. July 17, 2006); Buying for the Home, LLC v. Humble At least in the United States. Following defeats in Europe, Google has ceased sale of registered trademarks as