Structure and Style in Writing

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Structure and Style in Writing - Description

Ch. 2 Linda . Yellin. 1. Content. 2. Clarity. 3. Conciseness. 4. Elimination of slang, colloquialisms, trite expressions, . and jargon. 5. Tone. 6. Bias – free language. 7. Spelling . 8. Grammar. 9. Uniformity. ID: 699659 Download Presentation

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Structure and Style in Writing

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Structure and Style in Writing

Ch. 2 Linda



1. Content

2. Clarity

3. Conciseness4. Elimination of slang, colloquialisms, trite expressions, and jargon5. Tone6. Bias – free language7. Spelling 8. Grammar9. Uniformity10.Format

2a: The 10 revision cycles



The introduction tells the reader:

what the topic of the paper is in general terms, why the topic is important

what to expect in the paper.

Introductions should:funnel from general ideas to the specific topic of the paperjustify the research that will be presented laterIntroductions are sometimes folded into literature reviews

Writing a Research Report


Writing a Research Report

A research report has seven components:

2. Introduction—an example


A sociological article, paper, or report generally covers only one important topic of interest and conveys evidence and interpretations of evidence.

Research reports are NOT creative writing, opinion pieces, poems, novels, letters, musings, memoirs, or interesting to read.

Writing a Research Report


A research paper has three sections: introduction, body paragraphs, and the conclusion.

Headings created for subsections of papers body to make reading easier.

Ideas: Did you develop them sufficiently? Are they understandable? Do you need to add more information?Make sure every sentence says something necessary and important."Juvenile delinquency is a social problem" is poorly written

2b: Content



make sure paper progresses and orderly way. Check to see if the organization of your paper followed your outline.

An outline helps you see where arguments are not supported by evidenceBalanceSupply sufficient evidence, but not too much. To support a point, use two good quotes, as opposed to five redundant quotes





major points for emphasis using different words. Don't make the reader do the work of figuring out how your paper progresses or what is importantTransitions – indicates logical relationships between sentences. Indicates to reader that you are shifting to a new idea, or highlightshow certain material should be understood





Addition: additionally, again, finally, furthermore;to Indicate comparison: by comparison, likewise, similarlyto indicate contrast: although but, conversely, despite, notwithstanding, nevertheless, nonethelessregardless, yet, on the contrary;to indicate concession: certainly, given that, naturally, undoubtedly,





examples: after all, for example, for instance, such as, to illustrate;to Indicate location: around, below, beyond, to the north, to the south;to Indicate sequence: again, finally, first, second, third, moreover, next,to indicate results: as a result, because, consequently, therefore;to indicate time: after, as soon as, at that time, since, earlier;



To Indicate Repetition

: as has been argued, demonstrated,

indicated, as this paper has indicated, noted, statedas mentioned earlier, as noted earlier; as stated earlier;To Indicate Summary or Conclusion: as a result, consequently, in conclusion, in some, on the whole, therefore, to conclude, to summarize;



Read through document

and eliminate wordiness. Make sure each word in

your paper accounts. Get rid of the fluff, the filler, the useless words, meaningless sentences. “in other words” change to regarding; Wordy: beginning to learn concise: learns is able to

start starts

person of the masculine sex males2d: Conciseness


Slang: awesome


: remarkable bash party dude chap stinks


2e: Elimination of Slang, Colloquialisms, Trite Expressions, and Jargon



alcohol flunk fail cops police officers kids childrenTrite Expressionslaw and order law abidingpowers that be the authorities


ast but not least lastColloquialisms and Trite Expressions


When writing a paper

do not

use the jargon of your specialty area. Imagine the audience you're writing to be broader then just people from your field who are familiar with the jargon.Ex: the perpetrator the subject the collar the arrested subject ethnomethodology what happens when people consciously break norms;

Eliminating Jargon


Eliminate contractions: “don’t change to do not!


first – person and second – person pronounsI, me, my, mineWe, our, oursYou, your, yoursMakes your sentences more formal; 2f: Tone


Avoid terminology reflecting stereotypes based on gender, race, ethnicity, age,

social class, disabilities, religion, family status, sexual

orientation, or other personal characteristics.What is the matter with the term “illegal alien”?2g: Biased – free language




Do Useman – made artificial, syntheticmanpower workforce, staffmankind humanity, the human racemanned staffed, handled


ancestorsassemblyman member of the assemblyCongressman member of CongressGender – neutral language

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