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Presentation by Jim Foley Developing Through the Life Span 2013 Worth Publishers Teenage Topics Physical Development Puberty and more Cognitive Development in Adolescence Reasoning Power ID: 311089 Download Presentation

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PowerPoint®

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by Jim Foley

Developing Through the Life Span

© 2013 Worth Publishers Slide2

Teenage Topics

Physical Development: Puberty and more

Cognitive Development in Adolescence

Reasoning PowerMoral Intuition, Reasoning, and ActionSocial Development in AdolescenceForming an IdentityParent and Peer RelationshipsEmerging AdulthoodModule 11: AdolescenceSlide3

The next phase of development

Developmental psychologists used to focus attention only on childhood.

Lifespan perspective refers to the idea that

development is a lifelong process.The next phase of that process is adolescence.the transition period from childhood to adulthoodthe period of development ranging from puberty to independenceAre these kids

adolescents yet?Slide4

Adolescent Physical Development

Puberty is the time of sexual maturation

(becoming physically able to reproduce).During puberty, increased sex hormones lead to:

primary and secondary sex characteristics.some changes in mood and behavior.As with other maturation, the sequence is more predictable than the timing.

Effects of Early Physical Maturation:

Boys who become strong/athletic early

become more popular and confident

Are at greater risk of substance abuse, delinquency, premature sexual activity.Girls whose bodies mature early may associate with older teens or be teased or taunted. Slide5

Adolescent Brain Development

During puberty, the brain stops automatically adding new connections, and starts pruning away the neurons and synapses that aren’t being used (Use them or lose them!)

The frontal lobes are still forming during this time, still becoming more efficient at conducting signals.

The adolescent brain is at its peak of learning ability but not fully able to inhibit impulses (good accelerator, bad brakes). “Young man, go to your room and stay until your frontal lobes finish forming.”Slide6

Adolescent Cognitive Development

According to Jean Piaget, adolescents are in the

formal operational stage

. They use this reasoning to:think about how reality compares to ideals.think hypothetically about different choices and their consequences.critique the reasoning of others.debate matters of justice, meaning of life, and human nature.Slide7

Building Toward

Moral ReasoningAdolescents see justice and fairness in terms of merit and equity instead of in terms of everyone getting equal treatment.

Moral Intuition:

Our reasoning may be directed by emotions, such as disgust about evil acts, and elevated feelings about generosity and courage.

Lawrence Kohlberg’s

Levels

of Moral

Reasoning

Pre

conventional morality

(up to age 9): “Follow the rules because if you don’t, you’ll get in trouble; if you do, you might get a treat.”

Conventional morality

(early adolescence): “Follow the rules because we get along better if everyone does the right thing.”

Post

conventional morality

(later adolescence and adulthood): “Sometimes rules need to be set aside to pursue higher principles.”Slide8

Building Toward

Moral ReasoningAdolescents see justice and fairness in terms of merit and equity instead of in terms of everyone getting equal treatment.

Adolescents may strive to advocate for ideals and political causes.

Adolescents think about god, meaning, and purpose in deeper terms than in childhood.

Lawrence Kohlberg’s

Levels

of Moral

Reasoning

Pre

conventional morality

(up to age 9): “Follow the rules because if you don’t, you’ll get in trouble; if you do, you might get a treat.”

Conventional morality

(early adolescence): “Follow the rules because we get along better if everyone does the right thing.”

Post

conventional morality

(later adolescence and adulthood): “Sometimes rules need to be set aside to pursue higher principles.”Slide9

Example:

looting after a natural disasterWhich level of moral reasoning is involved?

Looting

is a problem; if everyone did it, there would be escalating chaos and greater damage to the economy.Looting is generally wrong, yet morally right when your family’s survival seems to depend on it.Looting is wrong because you might get punished, but if no one is punished, that’s a sign that it’s okay.Slide10

Moral Intuition

Jonathan Haidt believed moral decisions are often driven by moral intuition, that is, q

uick, gut-feeling decisions.

This intuition is not just based in moral reasoning but also in emotions such as: disgust. We may turn away from choosing an action because it feels awful.elevated feelings. We may get a rewarding delight from some moral behavior such as donating to charity.An Example of Moral Intuition:Given a hypothetical choice to save five people from an oncoming trolley by killing one person, many people’s choice is determined not just by reasoning, but by disgust.

Many

people would flip a switch to make this choice,

but not as many would push

a person on the tracks

to save five others. Slide11

Moral Action: Doing the Right ThingSlide12

Psychosocial Development: Erikson’s Stages

Each age involves an “issue,” a psychological challenge in managing our interaction with the social world

.The “vs.” part: there is tension between two opposing tendencies.

Successfully resolving this tension gives us strengths that help us move to the next stage.Not resolving this tension can lead to lifelong emotional and social difficulties. Slide13

Social Development: Erik Erikson

Erik Erikson’s model of lifelong psychosocial

developmentsees

adolescence as a struggle to form an identity, a sense of self.Adolescents may in different roles with peers, with parents, and with teachers, try out different “selves.”For Erikson, the challenge in adolescence is to test and integrate the roles/selves in order to prevent role confusion (which of those selves, or what combination, is really me?).Slide14

Erik Erikson: Stages of Psychosocial DevelopmentSlide15

Other Eriksonian stages on the minds of adolescents

While currently in the identity vs. role confusion

stage,adolescents

have ideally just finished working through the tension of competence vs. inferiority.They are ready after adolescence to take on the challenge of intimacy vs. isolation.Slide16

Peer Influence

The degree of peer influence is hard to trace. Apparent conformity (the whole group smokes) could be a selection effect (they get together

because they want to be with others who like to smoke).

Interaction with peers can teach new social skills. Parents may try to have indirect influence by selecting a child’s peers, such as by selecting a school or neighborhood. However, ultimately, most children self-select their peers.Slide17

Influences on Identity:

Parent and Peer Relationships

During adolescence, peer relationships take center stage

.Conflicts arise in this stage, especially with first born children. The challenge: finding how adolescent relationships with peers and with parents can coexist well, rather than being in conflict. Slide18

Parents vs. Peers

Battling over non-genetic influence

Parents have more influence on:

Education and career pathCooperationSelf-disciplineResponsibilityCharitablenessReligionStyle of interaction with authority figuresPeers have more influence on:

Learning cooperation skills

Learning the path to popularity

Choice of music and other recreationChoice of clothing and other cultural choices

Good and bad habitsSlide19

Adolescence, the sequel…

Emerging Adulthood

In some countries, added years of education and later marriage has delayed full adult independence beyond traditional adolescence. This seems to have created a new phase which can be called

emerging adulthood, ages 18-25.

Shom More....
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