Broadcasting: C&C
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Broadcasting: C&C

Week 3: Genre/ Television Formats. “It is a form of classification” (O’Donnell, 2013: 89)..  . Who uses generic categories?. Audiences, scholars, broadcasting . organisations. (e.g. to define ‘brands’ and channels), schedulers, critics..

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Broadcasting: C&C




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Presentation on theme: "Broadcasting: C&C"— Presentation transcript:

Slide1

Broadcasting: C&C

Week 3: Genre/ Television Formats

Slide2

“It is a form of classification” (O’Donnell, 2013: 89).

 

Slide3

Who uses generic categories?

Slide4

Audiences, scholars, broadcasting

organisations

(e.g. to define ‘brands’ and channels), schedulers, critics.

 

Slide5

“Genres transect the boundaries between text and context, with production, distribution, promotion, exhibition, criticism, and reception” (

Mittel

, 2004: 10).

 

Slide6

“Genres operate in an ongoing historical process of category formation – genre are constantly in flux, and thus their analysis must be historically situated” (

Mittel

, 2004: xiv).

 

Slide7

Mittel

suggest there are three ways that genres are discussed -

definition, interpretation,

e

valuation

” (

Mittel

, 2004: 16)

 

Slide8

Genre Theory in Specific Relation to Television

“The vast body of genre theory, as produced within literary and film studies, has trouble accounting for many of the specific industry and audience practices unique to television (such as scheduling decisions, commonplace serialization, habitual viewing, and channel segmentation)” (

Mittel

, 2004: 1).

 

Slide9

“From the television industry’s point of view, unlimited originality of programming would be a disaster, because it could not assure the delivery of the weekly audience” (

Feuer

, 1995: 144).

 

Slide10

The Formation of Television Genres

“Formulas that were successful in previous shows are repeated in new shows. Conventions are used that viewers recognize and come to expect” (O’Donnell, 2013: 75).

 

Slide11

“The genres that prevail on television are those that yield a regular profit for their producers” (O’Donnell, 2013: 89).

 

Slide12

Mittel

argues “Genres only emerge from the

intertextual

relations between multiple texts, resulting in a common category… Texts do not interact on their own; they come together only through cultural practices such as production and reception… Audiences link programs together all the time… as do industrial personnel” (

Mittel

, 2004: 8).

Slide13

 

“Even though texts certainly bear marks that are typical of genres, these textual conventions are not what define the genre. Genres exist only through the creation, circulation, and consumption of texts within cultural contexts” (

Mittel

, 2004: 11).

 

Slide14

Generic Characteristics

 

Slide15

“Drama and comedy produced for TV have been intended for episodic series, and that intention drives their style. News, information, and talk programming have to be regularized to repeat daily. Sports on television is an event” (

O’Donnel

, 2013: 60).

 

Slide16

“(N)

ews

, information, interview, and talk programming… in these genres the stylistic conventions are standard. The set itself is generally functional, relatively unembellished, and the commentators, hosts, and guests are foregrounded. This means that their figures are prominently lit and that the backgrounds do not detract or draw attention away from their prominence in the frame” (O’Donnell, 2013: 62).

 

Slide17

Narrative structure - “Some formulas are unique to certain television genres and particular shows. The crime show will have a crime solved at the end; harmony will be restored in the family situation comedy; a life will be saved in the hospital, a case will be decided in court” (O’Donnell, 2013: 75).

 

Slide18

Thirkell

Creating Narratives (even in reality/ factual formats) – requires strong characters and a story of conflict.

Taking the audience behind the scenes of everyday places

 

Slide19

Format Adaptation

Developments

within

a format, over time

(

e,g

, Oren’s 2012 work on cookery shows – female presenters/ instructive to competitive/ ‘aggressive’)

Developments of a format, influenced by

geographics

(

localisation

)

(e.g. cultural restrictions)

 

 

Slide20

Genre mixing

 

Hybrids/ Sub-genres

 

Slide21

“(G)

enre

mixing and parody point to the continued importance of genre as an organizing principle, bringing the conventions, codes, and assumptions of genres to the surface of texts and surrounding industry and audience discourses” (

Mittel

, 2004: xvii).

Slide22

“(G)

enre

mixing brings generic practices to the surface, making the conventions and assumptions clustered within individual categories explicit through the juxtaposition of conflicting or complementary genres” (

Mittel

, 2004: 157).

 

Slide23

“To understand the cultural operation of genre parody, we can view parody as a particular mode of generic mixture between comedy and at least one other genre, which I call the ‘host genre’… some (but by no means all) of the resulting humor stems from ridiculing the textual conventions and cultural associations of the host genre” (

Mittel

, 2004: 159).

Slide24

Feuer

, J (1987) ‘Genre Study and Television’ in Allen, RC (Ed.) (1995)

Channels of Discourse, Reassembled

London:

Routledge

Critical Studies in Television

Vol

8, No.2 (Summer 2013) Manchester University Press

Creeber

, G (Ed) (2008)

The Television Genre Book

London: BFI

Mittell

, J (2004)

Genre and Television

New York & London:

Routledge

O’Donell

, V (2013)

Television Criticism

Los Angeles: Sage

Thirkell

,

Rbt

(2010)

C.O.N.F.L.I.C.T.

London: Methuen

 

There are also many books in the library that focus on specific genres.

Slide25

Week 3 – TV Formats/ Genres

 

Part One

Comedy/ Talk show/ News/ Magazine show/ Drama/ Soap opera/ Sci-fi/ Reality/ Sports/ Game shows/ Children’s

 

What is the usual format for these genres (e.g. length? How often? When would they be scheduled)? 

What audience response is associated with each genre?

What kinds of characters are linked to those genres?

What kind of plot?

Give examples of each genre. Can you suggest hybrids and/or sub-genres of these genres?

Which of the genres is more/ less ‘respected’?

 

Slide26

Part Two

Watch the clips – describe the genre of each? Which conventions led you to this belief?