utomatic Multimedia Cr ossmodal Correlation Disco ver paper umber  JiaY an HyungJeong ang Pinar Duygulu Chr istos aloutsos Car negie Mellon Univ ersity ABSTRA CT
133K - views

utomatic Multimedia Cr ossmodal Correlation Disco ver paper umber JiaY an HyungJeong ang Pinar Duygulu Chr istos aloutsos Car negie Mellon Univ ersity ABSTRA CT

0213 4 13 130 657 78591319 3 A 13B 3 13 C 3D13C E0F 13G H I64 13 E0 7JK138 DL613M 3 N E4 13 NO P Q NR13S13 13TU 9 3 V W WO 4X 0Y 3 Z13OCG 6134X E 34 O13 T E13W30Q3913OK133 4133 E0 K1 Q1361 aV 0E13EbO Q5bC I613 E0 c 13 d e9 0a f E 361g5

Tags : 0213 130
Download Pdf

utomatic Multimedia Cr ossmodal Correlation Disco ver paper umber JiaY an HyungJeong ang Pinar Duygulu Chr istos aloutsos Car negie Mellon Univ ersity ABSTRA CT




Download Pdf - The PPT/PDF document "utomatic Multimedia Cr ossmodal Correlat..." is the property of its rightful owner. Permission is granted to download and print the materials on this web site for personal, non-commercial use only, and to display it on your personal computer provided you do not modify the materials and that you retain all copyright notices contained in the materials. By downloading content from our website, you accept the terms of this agreement.



Presentation on theme: "utomatic Multimedia Cr ossmodal Correlation Disco ver paper umber JiaY an HyungJeong ang Pinar Duygulu Chr istos aloutsos Car negie Mellon Univ ersity ABSTRA CT"— Presentation transcript:


Page 1
utomatic Multimedia Cr oss-modal Correlation Disco ver paper umber 290 Jia-Y an, HyungJeong ang, Pinar Duygulu, Chr istos aloutsos Car negie Mellon Univ ersity ABSTRA CT       "!#$ %&')(*+,-!#.+0/213 %4 13  130 657 (*(*785/9:(131-;=<9.+> +-: ? 3 @+ A( 13>B+&) *3 13 +(C 3(*(D13.+C E0'F > >13G H? I%+64 13 E0' 7@JK-13(!8  (!D/L613.M 3(! +&N) E4 13 "! &&NO P

%+!Q &+NR13-S'1?(*-3 '13(T#U 9 '3 V (*W W+O! : .4X@& (*0Y  + '3 :."!Z13(*OC(*%-.G $%6134X E [ *34  O13 +(T \%'[ E-13.+W30]Q%3("913%++!O+^%(K133+'! ^%+(**4_'133 E+0 +(K1: Q13(`61^ a@V  + +0E13EbO Q5&bC I%+613 E0 c 13"! ($d (e/9.& 0a f(* E 361g5YHh%+137Hi $0 :. E0% f` &j61f(*0 (f+0 O35j/L613.j13.+G 1: @+ (*Y(*kTlU7G3 V*1 %134_

13 ++S' V3 EQ13(Lf13.m (K1: &+ O:ZmZno3#     1: @& (*eHop qrsftW!+/L.+3C61W%13 V-*Hh 3 E(D'  f(* V6B&! B++4u13%+07 E-13.+(e@Q5 % 713 v0r V31: a VQ13($ 0  4 13 ++ %: 5YXw rxy3F O13C E 3O EQ1-,-T Categories and Subject Descriptors {| }-~[_€+‚Gƒ+„0…i€&~7†ˆ‡[‰„Š‚7‰o‹aŒŒŽh…hƒ„0…i€V~‰u‘Rs)(*

+ %+(` “QT qf| †ˆ€&_„:”ƒ+OŠG•~[–V…i~[ŠŠ'…h~"–&X‘^s)1*3(g—™˜:š›œVž*Ÿ ha›ž* 3 3 œž h ›> V˜:ž›Ež3 : eyw ords I%+61364X E+ *3 13Z! %13^0  13! :  +.'4_@+ (*0c E' 1. INTR ODUCTION   13H I%+613 E0 ) @'Jg13(!R/9a/^ Q1I13dB+&  *3 13 +( 3 (*(C E0

TC<9.+$'3+a  +0 13Y(C %'13 4  13 ++'!+/L.+-3c13.+c '3@+ (WB++0a (^HiO/L(‘ 9+Z+  _VVZg+Z'&iZZFˆ#0E h ž-E ž-ƫš ˜3šš i›E0Qž 3 ž3˜: ? hi ˜3-œ& ušPš K 3 i ž-šˆž>›Eš W & ˜3-œ+ uš ˆž h›>0Qž V iž>-ž ?a OW˜3-œ& uš 7oš * Xša 3  GXš h_

0/9-0!13.+G E13./97 '3 V (*7(f+: u!c + =@V  + 0a13>F'$ (h/L613.)13-S'1L(*-3 '13(!& %&''!+ E13V,-` %+e(*(!Q/L613.>13S1o653(! &>(*eZTU ^/L&3HhP13c13.+ Hh 0/L+a +613+ "(*& O3(‘ V˜:ž-& šZ ž*š Xš_˜::œ& uš  h +S E  !c 1*: (*1fHI 13 +0j +(!D/9d/^ 113 S' + 3 13.+ *3 O13

@V1g/o)Hi0 13%'3(L H#> +(D +0  13( (*$13.+ 1L+-/%++(*> +(^0 )@Vc0  130ZTDu<9.c   HW13.+(> + V$(>13G(*8 (*(*Q 13(@V1g/oHh0 O13%3( & 133 E(^f0  13(T V˜:ž-& š d  _ i 9_ž*Ÿ M G13 M HcQ%'4 EQ13(!QE1g/oI %+ (!(3 5Q!'?+ (*. + & +(*."!B+&>*4 3 13 +(D@V1g/o?+ (*. & & +(*.133 E(T ލ&

65Q!'JK%(K1c13%+(K1*: O13$13.+I: 61g5G Ho%'C E13.+ˆTc/9 (*E EQ13a13.+(^(*+ 3‘ V˜:ž-& šf$ˆž*Ÿ  I13dH#13S1'Q%+ E13(! & a13-3 (3 5Y %+(K133Q,-![B&&133 E(c13.+ 1e O3>3 1308 F (*(*6B&0 O13 +'!ˆ E++ !0 O3++ Q,-T <9.+R+: Q 3@ ([Q13%+61365cB++0C ([Hh 0/L(TP E 3 Hh3  "B++613f(L

3O0a 13 9"'y _*ˆZV^Z 3ˆ'&"O ›  h›Ež ušhOž*˜ 3 ž*˜:Y˜3š  ifš D  u _ž 3 u i uš V  h›Ež u iD : _ž*Ÿ 0 ž3š  uš  h›Ež ž* ž-V˜:ž ž-X˜K ލ& ˜3š : ž uš ˜ 3 ižC›Ež ufKžuQ ˜3š : ž_ž > ž- Pš K ? hi

i›E0Qžš X+ žu uš 3 0 ž*š›>š  uš G? hiG + uš ž3 ' 3 ž-X˜O +S E !/9?/^ Q1"13D (K/9]Q%+(K13([H'13.#Hh 3 uɍ u˜: ž-oš * P 'š  h›E0Qž ? hi žoXš-œ?:`auɍ u˜: š 3 h D hi+ž93˜  uu›Eš 0 hQ0 ž*šc˜ -T"U  (*(*% E#13.& 1  CS' V*13(Z.& 0? 3O0c%(Z/L613.e(* E O31_5

Hh%+13 +(^Hhc ˆ13.+C 0a E 'T 0/(*.+ %+/9d 3Q0&;Rj13.+d0 (*dHI(*& O3r h13S1-,-!/o70M13.+ 07'  (* VB+7 E13.(Yh1*HuNHg! (K13 '4X(K1Hc E E /9:(:,-TUj.+   ( + %&' 3  +(*3Z!#61I(I ):.& +13 (*(*Q 13a13.+ /L613. 8-5'4 /9:(!+-1 +c/L613.f :.f 13.0T <9.+-3 O3 $%+613 +>3(* 3:. & V-3(!R 1*1: :8+ & O*13(IH^13.+ 3 @+

f‘#Hi LS E !13> (*(*QF O13/o :'(9/L13.)  (! V4 +R.& 0R 3 V(*0C%+(K13-3 &$m S' V1: O13  S' Ek 13Zm uPs,-`&Hhc(*3 1D/9:( &f>H (W13.3e(D13.+c/o 38f “ OXT 0/9-0!D13.5 c%+(*0 3-Hh%+65'(*+M E13.+'(!
Page 2
%(*+E $1WHR  )8+0/L0'T U7D/o%F8W13eB&+E %+6Hi5'+e E13.Z!/L613.13.+LHh0/L+ (* V6B&0 O13 +(‘

61D(*.+%)@VC  )+ V+Q1 61f(*.%+M(* V1f*3 13(f Q5MH13.G @VOG(*4 & O3(!/L613.E E(*(* %(!QHh0 O13%3D133(!Q(*1*4X %+0 1*1*3@%13(!+ +f Z I@+& O13 +(^13.+-3 H_T 61^(*.+ %+(*0 C%+ EHi L 3 c13 +(L H[@JK13(!@V 13. /L613.)3(* V-1D13I1*: ++'!V (L/o (LHi L3(* V +(*(T j(*13=“Q!W/od@3  +5(*%(*(a13.d 3%() O1*13 E 13(   $

13 ++a + 3OF'I@+ :8 3%&f d: &' /^ 8  f: +.ZTd13 '(*3@V(%'$ '3 V(* E13.+Y & 613() 313. E(T j(*13 ={ /oY Y-S V-3 E13( M30   1: TIU7$'(*%+(*(C%'C@(*3 13(C7w)13Yp(c13. +%(*+(T 2. RELA TED ORK U7^ 3 %+ $13.o3 130$/o 3813c 30 (!Q8D  ^0  13! > E++'!+ &)  O1*36Sa @': 'T utomatic ima captioning <9.9 O30 W.+ (? 1*1*:

130e.%+P13-3(K10! &e $%613 o 1: L E'4 13Q(?.& 0P@V$ '3 V (*0Z!S 1365@V0 %+(*9  '%+     + 1: 13 (^130'%+(D &(*%@'Jg13T sf O3ž-Lc|6v0qO#%+(*) (*(*6B&-3(`ZU7Q5' ž-_iZ|   3 V (* (* E64g %13  13E(K1*: 1357%(*+f%(*e13.+$Hi0@+ :8V`  "P & U |vp# '3 V (*$ d %13  13C E13.Z!&%(*+ “O4 I%+64 1363(* %13  sf 38O s)'TGs)

3P10T T |6v  O^%+(*0  4XQ%'*3+a(K1: 13(K13(`ot9 3+ : 10T T | wQ!P{'!Ro 3 V (*a  +-: 13^.+: O3-.0  E!(* +630I@Q5 Hh  +"m (? (* V1 E'ˆHh D13S1e|6v0OX`Vto &  :+  | p '3 V (*e13. g *34 (* V &'+  [ O13Q1 63-.-1L Q0 13 +Xn^\  D4  c,-`    ž-_F|6v{? 3 V(*I -3(*(K4X E0 $3  E` %'5'%+% ž-_F |6vr%+(*R ^  :.+1*: +(* O13

 + '3 -.Z!Hi0/LtR3O/L ž-_Fˆ| qOuT ideo and audio mining <9. Hi 3 E0'F > '3Jg1E| “q?.& (W13: @Q5'13(WHP 1: `ˆ  +-: !F'C 1: @+ (*(R(* & O38I  ˆ*13(R13c (*(*Q 13D13S1?/L13.   ( +H (7| “u` +(*%+ FN %&'13*5M:.& O: 133(K13( /L613.aF'e'3(c| “v-uT9 E O35Q!13.+3W 3W(*%+(*(KHh%+V  ˆ *13(  OuT?13e (*(*Q 13W(*(?/L13.>13.6o

3e8cm J* kkm!ˆm F (*(*m! -13O,-T $ +: ! 13.^ @VO^ E-13.+(3 V *1?Q$3(*%+61RS' +61*4   4X(* V6B&8'0/L !+/L613.+ %1D 3O+$ >:  E-13.+aHi LB&++I *3F O13+( 3 (*(W E 613(T 3. PR OBLEM PR OPOSED METHOD U7c 3 V(*0) I+O"  + '3 :.)Hi D3(*(K4X E0' I*3 13(! &d/9E%+(*E  >0  13+ (I  %(K1*: 13ZT)\%C   '0

a(D1313%'3f13.+ 3 @+ Q13  :  +.d 3 @+ f!  WS1W/o '(*3@V$u ,P.+0/M13+: O13W13.+(9: .G@&,R.O/13I(K13  O13 -3(*(K4X E+ [*3 13( &7O,o.0/=13>$13.+ 1L  E1365QT <[ @+EvC(*.O/L(^13.133 E+   5a/9C%(*0)13.c &  V0T 3.1 Pr oblem definition <9.+C '3@ (L E3Hh3  65f'B&0) (LHi0/L(‘ 9"'   ?ZVLZ  ž-Aš y›  h›Ež

uGšhOž*˜ e  !"$#!&%%%'!(*),+ ž*˜: ? hi  i›ž u  u _ž B&&)œ'_ž ›Eš Qi+ž-›E +I-S+  E +![H^($ )13 HL 13 +07  (!#.0/ f/o%+(*(13.G E(*(*+,c0 '13  133 E(e HW f+-/C!?%++ 4 130  O; 13.+(W & V-0!V/9(K13%&'513.+(*$]Q%+(K13(c & 3 V(*e eHi: E-/9 38EHi L & O1*133f'(*O*5a E +I $%+613 E4  E@JK13(!"/L.(*I

1*1*3@+%'13(c %+@VI13.c 13  30 ? %+ E30 T U ?013^ @V: 13RC13.+? O1*1*3@+%13(‘ 1*: '13 &  - t^s(! 1*1*3@%13( I%+(K1@VjXš ›$ u˜ T!e1: 8+(*+  %+(!e8 t . W!"  / gd%: O13+,-T 0/90!7 %0 (*!13.+-5 0 I@V ž-" ! 8 0 g 13 +!  0! C E(*(* 13 13.0T U ? '3 V(*?13^  %" E13.+D13O/9 :'([(*1*4X %+0C

O1*1*3@+%13(! @V0 %+(*o13.5e+%+^ O13 E^ 1*1*3@%13(# (R W(* V 0 (*` & 13.+-57 (*(* EQ 13.+65G.& &'I13.+E0 (*E H^ E(*(*+f %('% (*1-,-TY<9.%+(!#/o +6571: 87 @V %1>(*-1*4_ %0 1*1*3@%13(Hi3 +0/=ZT 'QiˆFVF" v TE"+ž^   243 Wš ž-uX E u _ž 65 i+ž˜3šiž3˜ š Yš Xš ›I u˜ i ^ u _ž *5 c˜:G˜:š0š - š

› +cS E !VHh13.+I 1*1*3@%13 / g0  13!Z613(C  (13.+ (*1D H#R(*.f/9 :'(eT!+13.e\WSHh:f13+ *5+,-T 'QiˆFVF" “QTE"+žI $ š›E h 2 ? h[-ž - Xša i+ž'  a138+(Iš 203 - 87&7 ZLViZ vT 9 [š ž*˜: š ›E i 2 :5<; !&%&%%=! ož žD i ž- h›I  h : &˜ uš ?>@3 * A!A ,Wɍ u˜: :  ˜3š

Xšž3˜:Eœ'  š ›E iXš ž- +#S E  !0Hh [13.+P 1*1*3@+%'13 4 _0 '13 +'!13.+R(* EF O361g5cHi%++-4 13f%+)@V>vcH[13.+c1g/o$138+(L O3'Q13 !& &frI 13.+-*4 /L(*T   e0 (*(K1# H+0 13  30  %+(! % E30  %(!  e% E30 #13 3(T CB 3.&  +(C(*%3 '3(*65Q!Z/9>0 7 >4 & (*(o 13.+^(*& O3 (oHZ13.^1*3'%+13 $/L613.$13.+L @VD(*-1*4

13+'T+ C-S+  E +!VHi & O3Yv  $ %134X0 '13 ++,-! /9e.+ O @'Jg13(W H C“> O1*1*3@+%13(!+13.+CB3(K10!  g 13 +.& ( ($   (*1>HW 13  30 L %+(u?+ (*.133 E(:,-`?13.+ (* &ˆ! C g  '!^( Y(*1EH 6D +4_ E(*& oHh 13%3)133( ED=; c r'!+ (^/9e'(*3@Ve+S1-,-T "-10m ( @V : O13Ed   $0  13!"@VHh3I/o> 3(*1W13.+  F'0 'T 3.2 Case study: automatic image captioning

>13.(o0 (*!13.+D@JK13(o H"Q133(K1^ 3D   (`'0 :. HZ13.+ .& (9%+ E30 ˆ 1*1*3@+%'13(ch13.DHi0 13%'3c133(9 H[613(o3 +(:,-`
Page 3
5' $@V  (*-3 '13 \@'Jg13( ‘#13.+ 85 4u13.1*: ++> @'Jg10!   ‘#13.+c]%*5a@JK-1 13.+ 5 u4u13.) 1*1*3@+%'13C H? f@JK-1 *3 g, 13.+*13Sa H   *3(* V &'(L13$@JK1  3 *T 3 K‘#13.+ 85 4u13.1*: ++>  ! ‘?13.+c]%*5    k(

13.+'% $@V9 H1*: +E@JK13( X, 13.+'% $@V9 H?'(K131D %(L)13.+C'   H? O1*1*3@+%13 %+ I@V^ H# 1*1*3@+%'13(L VD@JK1      X,-!13.c%+ $@V-^ H#(L  sf O1*3S+NO13 13.+$%+ E'4X+ 3  k0&,9 J* 5)  O1*36S   13.+W3(K1: *1W13L H#13.C]Q%+*5 @'Jg1Iu [k-3(!&-S 1D $(*>mvm 13.+(K130 5)(K1: O13C 3@+ @61g5-13 ^HhW13. 3(K1: O*1D13 $#

#ŽFŠ &%(' I† ‚7‚Yƒ+O‡€&W‰‡‚ )# ?€VŽh‰ ‰Š +* …h~M„ -, [ŠŒƒŒ?Š'  (*0 '!& (*%++'! 0 O13!&Hh3(K13! -. W4P+I0 '13  (*85''!+/^ 0(*, : (*(*'!V 13-3Q, u , @&, 0, 11 10 u&, O, hH:, 10 11 waves sky sun sea cat forest grass tiger I3 Q, …i– OŠ 0%(' [OŠŠ ‰ƒ&‚YŒ#ŽiŠ…‚Gƒ+–&Š'‰ 21 9„:”€€&e„ -,

"Š+‚ ƒ&~[~[€&„ƒ„Š +*3 L„ -, [Š'…idOŠ–V…i€V~‰ 546*1 Š 71  893 Lƒ&~ :* -, [Š'…i 6;<;=?> L–&Oƒ+Œ @,A4 g– B8-C …F– OŠ'‰aŽF€Z€ (D# ?Š'‰„E…h~M €VŽi€& ECF8 (* EIHo13. (*.+ O$ 0 '13"!V/L613.G$  E 3e/9:(  13  30 F,-T 'aލ%'3GvEHi >13.d(3  E +  (!R13.6  13 +(W &13.+6L3  +(T

O/L$13.+  a-S V-*13(^ +13.W(*k0 @+c3 130613: 4 13%'3!/9c a%+(*c Q5(K1: & :(* E1: O13 313. E(C| “wO Hi $0 :.  !?@'30 8Y61$Q13f3 +()(*)ލ%'3GvuZ! ! H:,*,-! &)13.f  )0 :.f3 Q13 f(3 5Q!V r4_&,9Hh 13%3-13 0T <9.+D   ++C @V'L/L613.a Q5EHˆ13.+D +%+@(*.0$Hh 13%3 S1*: -13 YHi%++-13 +(E  *4X.+(K13: E(!"13S13%3$.(K13 :  E(!

13 |6v vi,-T 13.+(E(* VB+f(*1*13+'!9/9-S'1*: 130 D=; crdHh0 O4 13%3(LHF3 0 -.a3  Km @@"m ,-!8c13.+c E0 f &(K1: & : ' O13 YH . Dct %+(!" 0: 3(* V(*(13a O3 %+(D13S4 13%3^B+13-3(!Q613(o V(*613>13.+LQ1363L  L 5Q%'10! +>(* E (*.&  V'(*3 133(T 'T!  0JK931: O13a +$13.+D 30 C: 13  H?@V %+++$3f13>13.c30 Z3&,-T  W 13C13.& O1D13.CS 1


Page 4
Hi0 13%'3ES1*: 13  1: ( O3dš i'š3š Vˆ13f %  3 :.Y4 " % ? 6;<;= E13.+E+0(9(L @+ :8E@V0SE13.& 1o/LZ   :.f   C13> $(*1D H#k3> D E3cHh0 O13%3C-13 3(T <9.%(!Z/oI13%'3+0)13.I3 &  B #3@ “>Q1313.+eHh 0/L+'‘ M @'Jg13(!^ :./L613. (*1*4X %0 1*1*3@+%'13(f0 O134   30 u!'% E30 ! 13*4_ %0&,-!OB&+c *3F

O13+(R 3(*( E 613(TC?T!?ɍ u˜:Y˜3-œ& š 7_ž žI›>š ž$ ž #ž- iž h›EQž  ?K X ž$šT <9.7]Q%(K13M(/L.+ 1a13 S10!D13  13%'3d3(*(K4X E0'F  *3 13 +(T.+ %+ /9)%(*)%(K133+7 Hi0 13%'3)13 3(! (*.%Fa/9C%+(*C(* EC (*(*6B& 13d E13.Z! (D61W.+ (L@V (*% (K130M@VHi 3O; W&ˆ!^6HC5Q(!L.O/ 

Q5%(K13)Q133( (*.%F/9$(*.+Q 1Hh -;=\W0!ˆ6Ho/o$:.+Q(*$ (*(*6B&0 O13"![/L.+-. F (*(*6B&C(*.%Fa/9e%+(*O; / S1L/9e(*.+0/ .+0/=13E.& +!& & 13%& 5Q!@Q5 + (*(! 13.(*9(*(*%+(!Hh  9 $%613 E D(*-1*13T 3.3 Main idea Mixed Media Graph ;=;< <9.Y  jF'0 (a13 3 3(*1f 13.Y @'Jg13(!C (/oe ( 13.6> O1*1*3@+%13(u'   13 8+(:,C ($+'( d -œTY+ I%+613 E0 L@JK-13(R/L613.

1*1*3@+%'13(!/o9@'1: E ) v0,_4 + *13613f: +.ZTj<9.3 3 1_5 V(> HC( +aHh a0 -. O1*1*3@+%130,L &a+C E31g5' VcH#+'(^HhW13.c@JK-13(T Gr aph construction ލ%'3fv$Hh> 7S  E +T>U7$/LP+ 13 ( e,W13. *13S HC @'Jg1 $!L & ( ,I137@V)13.f*13-S Hc13. O1*1*3@+%13^ % KT?<9.%(!/9^ %1R >0 L@V1g/o>*5  @'Jg1*4X+'e +13.+c *3(* V & 1*1*3@+%'134X %c+'(T

<9.3f(> +65)(*%+@'13) VQ10‘)+ E% E30 ^ &13 O1*1*3@+%13(!"/o>+Y /^ 5133  +1c13.$(* E 361g5G@V1_/9 1_/9c13 3(L'T!13.+9:  _13-3c3  ^ &13.+9: +  (*8Q5a3    -,-T^\%  3 -.(L13  0'e6HR &f +65 6H#13.1g/o$Hh0 O13%3C13 3(D 3C (*e+ %+.ZT U7L+0$13'La c13.3(*.+$Hi o13. g(*+(*(*'T9<9.3 O3W  Q5/9

5(!@%1?/9D'0$13C  8913.+^13.'3(*.+ FE +  4 13 ‘#Hh 90 :.aHi0 13%'34X130!'-.Q(*c613(  E+ 3(K1L.@V 3(! &d )13.+e*3(* V++0'(TDU (*%(*(13.+e:.+ IH F O130!ˆ (W/9 (L13.+C(*(*1361g5) HR%'W3(*%613(D13  VT 6 D0  13.+ 1E E +%'13+13.++0 O3(K1+ .'@V3(>(E0 (K5Q!o@V0 %+(*/o 630 5).+ O13.+c(* E 361g5Hi%++-13  X,PHh W 5a'   2 uD(*(*%+ E '13

Yv0,-T M(*%+ E  O*5Q!o/o.& 0f1g/o 1g5' V(EHe8'(aM%' ;=;< : ."‘jˆž* aVž- O3š !c  94X+8(!@V-1g/9M13.+G+'( H$1_/9(* E Hi0 13%'3 133(`> &@JK-1*4g O1*1*3@+%13-4_ % #e'4X8'(:,-!@V1g/o >@JK-1oD +> E O1*1*3@+%13^ % T ލ %3EvC%(K1*: 13(D%'D  3 -./L13.f fS  E +‘  ZƒV‚YŒŽiŠ v T  Rš i+žo h›>0Qž ž-e  W 6 0

&! * @#@! * > P   žG:2"+ž -œ'Ȭ˜:š -: œ'š Xš7i  X ž-c i ž3ž :œž &š š Vž i+ž> h›>0QžEšhOž*˜  ; v ! :“ : šˆž i+ž žu uš !%&%&%'! vv š Vž i+ž _ž  !&%&%% K  @+   ž* 93 oK P ž 3 ˜3 & 33  Qž ' .9 P   ž^h š i+ž 3  h C 6;<;= -œLVš h

˜:_ž  ^hOž*˜uD u _ž ž  uš  3̍ +ž i u˜3 _žCˆž* uuˆž- O3š   9 ž  uš Q 13.+(LS E +!'/9e +(*- +65  IvC+ 3(K1W+ .'@V0!+13 0)%'1*133+$13.C  : fT <[I(*13.c %'13 4X0  13$ '3@+  ?3 @+ v0,-!/9c0 13 ' 7 E-13.+ 13YB+&Q 13 /9:(!^'T!9Hh     T^<9.(D E0 +(^13.&

O1D/oe+0a13>(K13  13C13.+e @ E+61_5  H90 :.7133 (c <%%% ![ ,-![13+ 05 TEU7E(*%(*(C61 +-S'10T Corr elation disco very by andom walk <9.+(? +%&'(#13.+RB+3(K1?(K13 I HV %P  3 -.Z‘[U7o 3 V(*913 13%313.I I%+613 E0 E 3 @+ Q13a : +.d '3@+ fTC<9.'%(! /90  1: 713.E(*k0 @a613: 13%'3aHL :  +.   3613.+ E(!R & /90 %(*  V4X13.4X(*.+6HW E13.+'(Hi  (*(*+7 E V *1: + 13$*13(^)

 :  +."!+ (9/o[ (L13-3 E+.+0/j3 130a( $%+4X0  130$   eh3 3(*13$@Q5I!(3 5 KDC$13.+  :  +.&,-!Z13E13.133 _13-37h3 '3(*Q130Z!ˆ(3 5Q!ˆ@Q5f / Kto )13.+ : .V,-T U .+ 0 7:.+ GHe1*361g5@& (*0M  + 3 :.+(G| “ rO>| u` : + 2/9 8( +    +8V!13 4X(*+(*613L &  & W 8+,9| !Vv0“Ou` .%+@(W &f %13. 3613(I|6v0wOu`ˆ (K13(* 3+ (I|6v @ 0uT

13.(D/o 38V! /9a 3 V(*a13G%(* š › P ? hi X )   "U DQ,CHh (K13  1313.+9 E V*1: +ON @ E+61g5HV+' C KD/L613.I3(* V-1 13G+ Kto'T9tP%10!o  "!913.)(* V6B+):.+) Hc E-13.+ (  *13. & "13> %LHi:  E/938VT <9.+ X: + /9 8/L613.M3(K1: O*13(*  V: O13( (Hh0/L(‘713  E +%13L13.+D E V *1: +ON  E61g5EH+' gtoIHi ^ KW'!  +(*9 : + /9 8P13.& 1P(K1: *13(RHi3

 KD!Q:.+Q (K4 +C: + E5> E +C13.+D 0 F @+(o-*5$13 ET?#S' 1 13.& O10!Z@VHh3$.+I  8(c -.!Z/L613.Y '3@& @+61g5  !Z.I Q( @& -8C13W+ ? gW'T  Z1  "! 9 $# I, 13o13.9(K130 5(K1: 13^ 3 @& O4 @+61g5>13.+ 1P%'o: + /9 89/L&B&+>.+ E(*6H" 1o+ KtPT <9.+"! % %! 9 $# $,9(D/L.+ 1D/9C/^ Q10!+13.+C E V*1: +C H Kto>/L613. 3(* V-1D13 KW'T 'QiˆFVF" TE"+žc h›œ'š X

&˜-žš Vš '& =? hi œž*˜9Xš Vš žW i+ž _ž* X _ž9œ š3  h ' $# $,š W š › P ? hi X : e ˆž :š ž0 +?S E +!13(* o13.+9 %134X0 '13 ++W 3 @+ ™Hh?   HVލ%'3v! /9P0 I(K13  13o13.o(K130 '54X(K1: 13o '3@+ @+613( ,3  A ,HhI P(eH913.+ 6;<;= ![/9$0  8 7 +65d13.+ +'(L13.& 1D*3(* V+f13>133 E(!&

&)/o )3 V*1W13.C13 Hh-/l(3 5Q!+w,-!+ (D0 '13)/o :(T 3.4 Algorithms d13.+(c(*13"!"/9>(*% E  3ke13.+I 3 V (*0 ss E13. HhB&++o3(*(K4X E+ Q *3F O13+([@5 3(*13L13.? +(*%+ 'C H#13.+c 313. fT +c13.+: ? '3@+ f!V13.$  3613. A(e (HiO/L(‘c@+%+ 13.+ 6;<;=?> " : ."`/L.+)13.C%+(*W (*8'(^Hi D13.+C E V *1: +  HR KD13E / Kto'!V(K13  13e13.+e(K130 '54X(K1:

13e 3 @& O4 @+61g5 ( "! 9 $# I,9B++0 @VOT <9.+^ E +%'1: 13I HV13.^(K130 5'4X(K1: O139 3 @& @613(P(?-*5I'4 133(K13 &) E V*1: Q10ToU7C%+(*e  1*36S+ 1: O13"!+Hh  >4 & 13+(*(T Z1  @V13.+G]Q%+-*5M@JK1 T 'T!  G -. d H ލ%'3vG &(*% + V(*13.+ 1a/9/^ 1a13 B&+13.+ E (K13-4  130E133 E(T#U7'$  ZU jHi3 l+ ) '!' & E %13L13.+
Page 5
(K13 '5(K1: O13^ 3@+ @61g513  ! 

 $ KvO, !&%%% $  ,*,-T Z1 @V913.9%+ $@V-# Hˆ(?$13.+ ? 6;<;=  : ."! & 13. % $@V^H#0'(T <9.E(K13  13Y H^13  !   7@V$ E  EQ130  EQ1365 @Q5E  O1*36S> $%613  13ZT  "19‹ @VW13.+W OJ* +-5  1*36S>H 13. ;=;= : +.Z!# &Y1e61@V> %+ E4X 3  k0ˆT ? Z1 B @V> a%+ EG-13 c/L613. P613(  E13(k3!"S' '1 Hi 913.LQ1**5$13.& O19*3(* V+(R13 )

'`(*-1o13.+(PQ1**5$13EvT U7>0  B 13.+ X3(K1: *1-13 3T C 0/ /9E0 YHi 3  k>13. 'B&613 f H[13.+$m  E V *1: +m HR I+E B&13 f, I'QiˆViZ {'T>u+_ž* X_žW ž3˜Xš  [ž- e:ž9i+ž#œ š3 6 iš  X  hQai+ž š ›P 9- š ›lVš 7"+ž- iž  uv _ž* X _žCœ š3  if ž*˜Xš - _š I h›œV

^ _ž* X _žI ž*˜Xš  F i+žIž*  uš ˆ *; ™Kv  ,K‹ Kv0, U7C0 0 (*65f(*.0/=13.+ 1 *; Ru}  Kv   0,K‹,  X“ , /L.3I}e(13. ) Q1361g5)  1*36SˆTW<9.+e +(*%+'IH B+&'$3 (*(K4X E+ " *3F O13+(D(L(*.+0/Lfލ%'3“T    :  +.f &a a@JK-1  !/L.+3c(* E 1*1*3@%13(^H   C.& 0 E(*(*> %+(T vT . "-1 B cr'!Hhc "613(

Q1*3(!+S' 1D )mv m+HhW13. O4X13.aQ1**5QT “T ? "1I‹ @V$13.+E JK 5G  1*36SG H913.E % EQ130  :  +.a30 O130aa(K13 vT  3  kc‹ @Q5E%+ EdT T!  80 -.f%+ E(*%+ l13)v0,-T 'T +613 k {T#/L. !: .+ (^+1D3 0f, {Tv Kv4XO,K‹ _b , …i– OŠ B'     !"#$%%&'(*)+,-/.0 +12 435)4 %,067.098 3.5 erf ormance D613.+%.>Hh (K1o 630 5+0 Oo >13.+L+ O1: @+

(*D(*kO,-!Q13.+^ '3 4 V (*0   3613.+ KW  3613.+ >4gn^n E0 @Ve)Hi%*13.c 4 : 130ˆT$U7I0 Y1:  G13.$Y &31c613: O13%3>HoHh (K1 (* %13(13E0 (K5'(K13 E(!&13 :.+eHh (K1e  + '3OS'  13 +(T U7e0 GE13.  O1*36S)3(*G &f(*IR]VTˆ“`ˆ W/90  %(*a f0/^4u: 8  + 30S'  13| “ “!^v-9 0!#Hi I  1*3(e13.& O1 .+ 0^@+Q:84_'F  & +(*.& V(!/9^0

E%+(*913.^ E13.+'(R@Q5a| “ pOXT 13.+ 113.(? O30 W(#(K13%+&'[3(*0 3:."! /99 +65e VQ1#%'1 13.+ 1I%'>  + 3 :. ($ E% 0!? & 61$  1*3F 5 %&' /L.-.?(13.+o@V(K1? E%R13c'W13.+PH (K1?  O1*36Se-3(* "T 3.5.1 Scalability for auto-captioning Z1 ;: @V?13.+R'% $@VZH3 +([S1*: 130cHF3 13.P  (! @V?13.+#% $@VZ H'0'("c13.+? :  +.   ! &  <  -: C, @Vd13.+G (K1f HI V*Hi 3

E+ +0 O3(K1*4X+.@Vf(*0 O3-.= 13d H ;: Hh0 O13%3e-13 3(T 9113.  h+ hQ^œ' ž-!13.+P 3 V(*0 E13.+ssMQ1*3%13( 13.C :  +.   ^T9<[-133 E+c13.+C0 3(K1*4_.@V W+8( * W4X+8(:,-!/9C V*Hi 3 +0 O3(K1*4X+ .'@V84 * C,R(* 3:.  0 :.)3 "T^<9.+(*e(*0 O3-.(W @Ve : 13d%(*+  &'S(K1*3%13%3 !L8G  4u1*3 | “O{ uT2<9.+131: W1*: ++

13 E^(P+0 O9 $13.+L%+ I@V# HZ0'( !Q &>(*%+ V-*4_+ P 13.+'% $@V9 H3 +( =: I‘  X ?> < >  -: C, @ A6 >Kv0, u, G13.+>13(K13 T!#0 '13+Q,C +.& (*!/oE+0d13(K13  13 13.+(K130 '5 (K1: O13 '3@+ @+61g5 13  Hi  f13(K1$  a 613: 135Q!%+Q13'13.^(K13  13^(K1: @k(T >%'RS' V3 EQ13(! 13.+e%+ I@VD HP613: 13(> *A  ,P(1_5' +0 65f(*  9T T! w r,-!&W61D0

)@VC(*1L13>.+ OC $%+  VL@V%&ˆ!+ &)(L H :- \$KvO,-TE+ e0 -.Y613: 13Z!? )(* + 3(*>  O1*3SG I%+613 +0 13Y( V*Hi 3 E0f &)(K13(c O3%&“ A > ,9 V: 13(TL<9.+ O: +(K1PHh o0 '13+I c13(K1P   W(?13.+3Hi 3D0 9 13.+'% $@V9 H#0'(T  B> *A  A > > {Q, 4. EXPERIMENT AL RESUL TS 13.+(9(*13"!'/9W(*.+0/S' V3 EQ1: &3(*%+613(913$ +3(*(913.+ Hh 0/L+a]Q%+(K13 +(‘

DC %& 61g5ˆ‘ 0/ 'Q(e13.+ 3 V(*0ss E13.+7 V-*4 Hh 3  f0  13$13(K1D   (:; # : E-13#'H %+613(‘ O/Y13W:.+Q (*o QI'H %+61# %+( Hh L13.  & c + :  E133(:; +: 1_5ˆ‘ O//oQ(ss 0  13%3C13.+D3 (*(K4 E0 *3 13(‘#HhoS  E +! .+0//o&'Q(P61R(* 13.+L33(*W 3@  a e133 y8!(*8Q5'!QB+&>13.+ 3(W13.+ 1 385)13E

*3(* V &f13E61-,-T' EF O365Q! .+0/ /o'Q(css20 '13%3C(3  E4X E0 $*3 13( (3 05Q!133 >4u133 f!L3'4u3 *3 13 +(:, 7%IS' V3 EQ10![/o%+(*v0rf   a+ 1: f(*-13(HF3 no 3! /L.+:.e(" E E +65D%+(*0ce 3' %+(ˆ/9 38$|vruT?< @+o“^(*.0/L( 13.+c1: (D H13.e+ O1: $(*13(T 1 <[(K1D {q qw  wvqq vOw wO{Q“ r r @ r  { {  w p w“O{v v0p{ wO{  qv v0q r'vv &  q w rv

 w“q vOwO{ w w p p v0qv @ qw  v  w r rq“ w“q  v0p“ w ww v v0qv0pr   {p w r“wp w“  v0p r w w pq  v0q“{QwQv  {'v {q  p“ wv & “ v0p“ wO{'vp @ “  w rv0r w“pp @ O{ w ww{ v0qvOw  {   p{ w“pp v0p q w w q v0qv0{  “O{  v v w“ @  w wvO“ v0q r“ pv vqrv vr {q  r q wv & v{ { wO{Q“{ @ “ p“  v $# ŽiŠ F @G

Š„ƒ+…hŽh‰d€&>„ -, "Š 0* [ƒ„ƒ‰Š„0‰ 2'04 &: ' „Oƒ+…h~…h~[– OŠ *H –V…i€&~‰ 21 d (' „Oƒ&…h~[…h~[–…‚Yƒ–&Š'‰ 21 ?E ۏƒ+Œ„…i€V~ €Zƒ $# Žiƒ+O‡ ‰0… JI Š 71 f~[€ B* [Š'‰ &4 LKM: 891 aŠ "–&Š'‰ 21 Š'‰„ (' „Š‰„ …‚Yƒ–&Š'‰ 4.1

Quality +o0 -.E13(K1P   !Q/9L E +%13913.L0 '13 ++ %: 5 ( 13.+ V31: I Ho13-3 E(W/L.+:.G 3$ *31365G 3130ˆTC+ I13(K1L  c/L.+:.).+ (  *31D0  13133 E(!+ss™/L 31a (* 133 E(T .D 133 E( O3 *3-135 3130ˆ!
Page 6
13.d13.+>0  13+f %': 5dHhe13.+(c13(K1e   >(eB++0 (  ލ %3(*.0/L(e13.> 0: E0  13+ %:

5dHh13.vr  1: e(*13(T#U D E & 3W%'o3(*%13(P/L13.13.+L3(*%13(P3 V *130 M|6vruTd<9.+ E13.YM|6v0rO9(+H^13.+> E (K13Q1I & (* +.(K130 O130Z‘o61W E'(^13.+C   C0 '13 ++E '3@ (D (K1: O13(K13 ?1*: +(* O13 7 '3@+ +(*(C61c%(*+ d 3 @4 @+(K13d E'L%+(*+YS' V1: 13 4X  S' Ek0 13=uPs,-TPU7 3-Hh>13f13.6> E13. (I13.+ KPs)7  + '3 :."T7\ 13. 0Q4 -: 

!Pss -.(e0  13 %: 57 E '3 EQ1cH v0“T  V3Q1:  e VQ13(!&/L.+:. *3(* V &'(W13 $3 13 >4 '3O EQ1^HRw qxaT 10 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 Data set ID Score EM MFG …i– OŠ  B'  +*37)   [ŠŒƒ+Oƒ&‚YŠ„Š ‰dX€&   ƒOŠ  6; r +1 Rƒ&~ @*  j U7) (*Y E & O313. 13 ++G %: 5 /L613. E3 3Q1  :.++(*  E13.(f|

u!^ 13.)(3 E)+ O1: Y(*10‘ 13. : 3:.+0 #W(* V1s)( E-13.+7  cs),-!V &13. " 13Q1 63:.+1cWQ0 13 7 Eo  DQ,-Tˆލ %3{ >4 + 3(>13.)@V(K1E O:  f0 '13+ %: 5 EG13.Yvr  1: c(*13(#3 V*130$@Q5e13.+91_/9c E13.(^ cs + C c,P| OX! +I/L13.a13.+ O:  c0 '13+> %: 5a H[13. '3 V(* ss2 E13.+ˆTLW613.%+ .@V 13. cs +  E 3OC 13.cPs

E13.Z!13.5E@V 13.(*W13I %9 +-3 ;=;<?> Z  4 '3 -. uwxa!+3(*%(D“  x &“ wx>,-T 1>(E (*GQ133(K13+d13.& O1 ;=;=?> D (*7 ($(*6B&0 1365 0/9-f 3 !W@53 %+.65j j: H  +613%+‘7r'T rr“ 3(*%+(Dr'T r“> &r'T rT 4.2 arameter defaults U7LS' V3 EQ1R13CB+&$ %1P.+0//o%+ E ˆ31P %+(R Hˆ13. + :  E133( C +   ˆ1L13.+c0  13+ %: 5QT ލ

%3$w$(*.+0/L(W13. 13 ++ %: 5H9ss2%+(*+'6Hi4 Hi3Q1L %+(o H#'0 5EH 13  TR<9.+c + :  E13  A(oBS'0 O1 T?<9.+9 %': 5e30 -.(? W  130 %> ( P 30/L(#Hi3 wD13Wr '! /L.-.E&'0 13(R13.+^ '3 V(*ss= E13.$(P+(*+(*613D13 13.-.Q(*a H T)U (*.+0/y+65Y13.+>3(*%1$  +a+ O1: (*1 grr p !+13.+c3(*%13(L ) 13.W+ O1: $(*13(D 3C(* E 0T ލ %3Ip>(*.+0/L(W13. 13 ++ %:

5H9ss2%+(*+'6Hi4 Hi3Q1C %+(c H90 5fHh 13 ˆT<9.>'0 5H 13  e(cB+S'0 O1Cr TWW "!&13. '3 V (*0dss E13.)(+(*+(*61313 13.-.Q(*a H  7!#/L.+3E13.a 13 ++G %: 5730 -.(I  130 % (   O3(LHF3 I13v0r'T 4.3 Generality HAM LDA MFG 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 Data set ID Score …i– OŠ  :'  12 4393 +7,  /+0,28 067.0 7.  )+ + %L.&%  e€ˆ‚YŒƒ …i~[– !  

”>…i„ -, G ‹ ƒ&~ :* )‹ $ C G ‹ %" Rƒ+„Š'~ˆ„ )…i…h , ŽiŠ„ ‹ŽiŽi€Zƒ+„0…F€V~ 89' *‚YŠƒ&~ 1 ƒ … $H ƒ&~[Š $8 %& C / ' :1 (& C (&)& (893 *# f‹ %# f…iŠOƒ+ , …hƒ+Ž ‹a‰ŒRŠ'„ € B* [Š'Ž 89' *‚GŠ'ƒ+~ 1 ƒ…iƒ&~ Š (8 K %& C / )+-, B1 (& C (&)&. (893 /  0 ' *‚YŠƒ+~ 1

ƒ+…iƒ&~[Š $8 %& C 1-2-&. B1 3& C (&)&-& 78 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.2 0.22 0.24 0.26 0.28 0.3 0.32 0.34 0.36 0.38 0.4 decay factor: c Score …i– OŠ 42 B' 5 1' 3 +7,  /+7,8 6 #)4 .0/.031 [ŠƒŒ„0…i€&~ …h~[–ƒ& ƒ+‡€&~ €V~[Š €+I„ -, "Š [ƒ+„ƒ‰Š„ 89&)&.:-; @C ‹a‰)„ -, "Š [Š'ƒ‡Xƒ&„€+ ƒ+…iŠ'‰ 21 ˆ„ -, "ŠEƒ&

ƒ+‡GŠƒ+ , GƒaŒŽiƒ+„Šƒ ?Š *H „:”IŠŠ'~ <& BC 12 aƒ&~ :* & C 1+ B1 ˆƒ+~ @*&* [€ˆŠ'‰c~[€&„c , [ƒ+~[–&Š‰0…i–&~… 1= ?ƒ+~Z„Ži‡ (C [ŠŒƒ+Oƒ&‚YŠ„Š > …h‰ ?= ZŠ ƒ+„ > 10 0.2 0.22 0.24 0.26 0.28 0.3 0.32 0.34 0.36 0.38 0.4 number of neighbors: K Score …i– OŠ @: B'  12 393 M+0,,  /+0,8 67.0$% A   CB

".0 6 37. B 0*$% ƒ„ƒ ‰Š„ 2' D8&-&.:-; @3 "Š ƒ'‡Xƒ&„€+ *; r >E )€&„0…iŠ7„ -, "Š Œ#Žiƒ„Šƒ ?Š„:”IŠŠ'~ƒ&~ @* =v0r +C ssl/938'(C 7 @'Jg13(e HL Q51g5' V(T$U7>'(* aS' V364 EQ1W HoB+&'(* E c0 '13 G13-3 E(%+(*fssITˆU I%+(* 13.+$(3 E 6;<;=?> R : .7 +(K1*3%130GHi  %13  O13>   0  13Tf<[)B&+G13.E(*

E e133 E(eHD )0 '13 133 A-! 13.+a3(K1: *113 >($(*1.& 0ak3 ( 1 D EQ13(IS' 1 13.+^ +L*3(* V+E13c13.^0 '13>133 T#< @Dc(*.O/L(R13.+
Page 7
(* E 133 E(cHh %++GHh$(* EE H913.E0 '137133 E(T Y13. 1: @+!# :.730/l(*.O/L(e13.+$0 '13  133 A ]Q%+(K13  1e13. B3(K1e% E"!ZHh0/90 @Q513.$13 7w(* EF Oe133 E(Hh %++Y@Q5 ss(* *13)@Q5(* E 361_5f' 30,-T W

13d13.& O1)13.+31*30M133 E(  8d  1fH$(*+(*‘ Hi  -S+  E +!#13.a(K1*3m @': +:."m 13.a 13 (I(K1*3+ 65 34  O130G13aHh 3(K1*4 &G@+6:'493F O130Y+ 13(E @+6:(*'!0/L! +.Q13,-!ˆ +)(*EZT 6 13I  13.+ 1L/9) 13.E(* V4 F ‘E+f1*HN'H_!P+3  k0 13Z!R+f13.+$  4X(* V6B+ & 5'(*([4'/9ˆJK%(K1"1*30 O13013.+(*R133 E(Z ([+'(ZC % * ;=;<

8C*513.++I(*T (* &Z!"(*%+@'13>@(*3 O13"![(c13.& 1e %e E13.dQ(e+1 (* 13E@V@ (*0f@Q5Hi30]Q%Q1D/o :'(T f %D -13 "!V13. 13-3 E(9 /9 133E &(*8Q5'I/o3c*5$Hi30]Q%+1c8D13.+D133 E( 13.+c & C 3^$ 3  +?+ (*.$13-S'1-,-T  o-10! 13.PHi3]%Q1 13-3 E(9>&š V(*.O/M%+ >13Q Hi13aa< @+T#U D(*%+(* V-1o13.& O1 13.^-.^HˆF O3 9. $ 1*3 13.9 

ˆ13(?Hˆ V +% R+'( (*%-.f ( _/9 133 & _(*8Q5'T 5. DISCUSSION U7e 3e(*.+Q13+EHhc $ E-13.+13.+ 1L30]Q%+63(L+E + :  E133(T <9.%(!V.+3C/o$'(*%+(*(.0/ 13:.+Q(*I-H %613(WHh13.I'0 5  & :  E130T  >/o@ : .+(!R13.+3 E E&'07 %+Hh  a($1_5' +0 65 &; cr'TvOw| “ puT%3 3(*+ 65Q!P %E-S V-3 E13((*.+0/ 13.+ 1I13.+( :.+ eQ(L 1LQ)0  13+> V*Hi 3  +T

+(K130 Z!  Q7]Q%& 1_5d(e :.+0Hhe @; cr'T qa erT TIUM.5f(c13.(C(K4 -3 & +5+; U7 Jg13%'313.& O1$/L.+ 1'133 E+($ Q %aHi >13. g 05eHh 133c(13.+9' E13 H+13.9 :  +.ZT '0 65Q!/9o/9 Q1  % / _: &' /^ 83f13f.& 0 +'4u1*3 ?:.& +>13f30 -. 13.>%'13(*8*13(eH913.+/L.+ :  +.ZT<9.%+(!"Ho13.+E'F  E13eH 13.c :  +.(  &!13.c 3 @& @61_5a13.+ 1L.W/L"30 -.) I VQ1L

13. g V3 .+*5'$(D 3 @& @65 '3 V*13 & "13    D13.+c/9@ : ."!13.+ E-13D(W  30S'  1365  Iv  f| “O /L.-.E E +(R13.& 1?13.D '3@+ @+61g5 D   Hh P13.+^: + /9 8D13I3 :. $+'C13.+C V-3 .+*5a(^3%.+65     $; ™Kv  ,  jr r{Qw Xw , 13.c0 (*eH? %'13 4X0 '13+!+/L613. 1*34X + *13613c :  +.Z!13. ' E13L(L3%.+65  c'T H/9e'  +13.c(3 E 6D     Hi W%'W

(*!'13.+a/9C.+ O Kv  Yr v0w,  Kv  , up, pw , /L.-.e(" I%+:. (*13^%'[ E +630  @+(*3 13 +(T?\WH%3(* ! 13.C 3 @+ 30]Q%+63(L E3c0 3-Hh%+[ + 65'(*(L4P@+%1^/oe 3c13. B3(K1W13E(*.0/13.& O1 ' &; cr'TvOw>( 1 6/^ 5'( 13  ZHh: + /9 8(D/L613.)3(K1: *13(T 6. CONCLUSIONS U o(K1: *130eHi3 ™13.9   ^ %'13 4X0 '13+c 3 @+ f! +/9  V0 6;<;= !V E+: [ E13.13.& O1W (* V 1W*34 

13( 3(*(D E0'F TP<9.+C 3 V(*0 : .f@& (*0) E'ˆ0  @VE  + +0d13f-3(*> $%13 E0' a 1: 13B&+G I%+61364X E+  *3 13(T><9.$ E13.f.& (W13.+IHi0/L(*: @+>:.& O*4 -133(K13( 1?(R  $&' V&'Q14ˆ13.+ X,[(* EF O361g5Hh%+13(  E -1365f(* 13$% ;=;=?> # E13.+HF3 13.+4  "T 13]%63(c+a%+(*-*4g'B&0 & O: E133(!Z e 5d13.+

13%++IQ1*: (K1[13+0 O-N V65'+ E FN8-3+  cs)(! 4X E0 +(%(K133+'!13O,W+ C613(C +651g/o + : E-133(! M + !L/9d QHh %1 %+(!W &/oG(*.0/  E +630 65713.+ 1e13.+E V-*Hh 3  +(+ 113Q(*(*13 13$13.+ f!' Q5'/9 5QT ' V6B+0 65d  +0)HhC   I %134_ 13 ++'!ˆ1 34 ''("-S1Z3(*%13(! %13 V*Hi 3 E+^. .+65B++4u13%+0ˆ!   4X(*

V6B& E13.+'(T 1P(PH (K10!'(*0 I% >/9&/L613.E13.+W+ O1: @& (*W(*k `61o0  @V>  '$GHh (K130!"/L13.Y0![  V4u13.+-4_(*.6Ho  O1*36S @': > E13.+'(T s) 30!c13 13.+Y@V(K1fH$ %8+0/L0'!W13.+(f()13.+dB+3(K1  ˆ*1La $%613 E C+ O1: @& (*(!'13.& 19 3 V (*(L(*%+:.a I :  +.'4 @& (*0a + '3 -.E13eB&&> + 1*133(9 & *3 O13 +(L 3(*(^ E4  T U7)/9-3f +0 (3 Q1365(*%'3 3(*013.+

1(*%-.   4 &' V&'Q1Z E13.+ˆ!/L613.C : -13 65C+L & O: E13-3(Z13913%+!  +  0d13a%'13 V*Hh3 A(* EI HP13.+$ E (K1c31C &d E(K1 0 O3Hh%6513%++a E13.(9Hi W  e %13 4X0  13+T +%'13%3W/o 38 %+aHi%*13.+-^S' +61^13. 3 E(*$ +13 @V1_/97 $%+613 E0'F a+ O1: @+ (*(I +7 :  +.   3613.+ E(![13.& 1 /9$ 3 V (*E.+3 ‘ E %1: 13 GH9 E(*(*+ %(!

%13-4 1313  & Q5j13.+f+ 1: E++ 1: (*8M13.& O1)30]Q%+63d13.+ (*O-*5)H# *3F O13+( (L613(^B+3(K1L(K13 ZT 7. REFERENCES |6v- T&D-. 1: (W &oTVs)O.+**5QT& (K1D E %1: 13 ) H 0/^4u: 8a + '30S  O13 +(T d׍ ' jO!+ + (Wpvv  p'vq'! “ rrvT “0TW@V*10!  +!& +)T  RTt9 O: @+ (*T  E-13L H 13.+/o 3)/Lc/9@"T " e  ž-!&{rv‘v0 r  +v0'v !Pv &  'T O  >T&t9 O3& O:Z! #T %'5

%+%"! T+'e361: (! T+T+3(K5'13.Z! T&tDT+!V &)sYT  :+ "Tˆsf O13-.+$/o :(D & +13%3(T  š  V[š Y˜: hVž = [ž3  h ! Lž ž* ˜:! '‘vvr   +vvw![“rrT {  >T&t9 O3& O:Z! #T %'5 %+%"! & T&eT+ 3(K513."T no%(K133+ O*10T #"$%$&$ Rš #š Rš ›Wœ _ž " uš (' _ž ) Dž*˜3š3 + i uš +!&%+ Ec“! & (D{{ * Q{ {v ! “ rrvT w0

 >T't9 3+ :) & T'T' 3(K513."T Z0 3I13.(*  13(  H/o :(W + -13%3(T )" :+_ Rš ?š Rš›œ _ž " uš+! &  (L{r q  &v0w!Z“rrvT pO T'toZ +)sYT  :+ "T&s)+$ + 1: O130a+ 1: T + iaD+  ," :+_ž V  š Vˆ [ -" " Rš ž-V˜:ž-! %+65f“ q4_D%+%(K1Cv!&“ r r'!V<[ 3 13'!Vn9 & + 'T
Page 8
<[3 @: +:. @+6:'( +.Q1 0/L +(K1 .& /L8 @3' /^ O13

3:. (*8Q5 (K13+ @V O13( 0 13%+( (3  %& O3 (*-*1 (*8Q5  : (*( (*%+(*1 0 O 1*: :8( (K1*31 @%++ ( 13%3 313 1_5 V Hi43vp + + JK1 (*8Q5 3%+Q/^ 5 /^ O13  381 V + (K1*31 HiQ (*% @+%F'+( $%(*.3Q E( Hh%+ %+(  3 %+& 1*3 + Q13( :  + 3( (K13 13 E + V + (*%+ 13%'3 3%+( 3Hi( B&(*. /^ O13 Q   :  (*0 13S13 & O1*133 @& -8 3 %++ 13S13%'3 (*( (*-4_% #ŽiŠ 4 B'

I†ˆŠ+‚Gƒ&~ˆ„0…hƒ+ŽhŽi‡M‰0…h‚7…hŽiƒ„Š ‚7‰$X€&a‰Š'ŽiŠ'„Š +* MƒŒ„0…i€&~M„Š‚Y‰ 0ˆT+tP3 &  ?T B # T&<9.+e & 13 I5a H# $ 3-4_(*  .Q5' V*13S13%& ˆ/o@)(* 3:.+ T 9 š0˜:ž3ž hQ iž ˆž- ž-i :_ž &  uš & ž  Rš ž-V˜:ž-! 

qT qO T&tR3O/LZ!ˆVT+eT ?1*: '!  IT T B ?1*: '!& + eT  ?TVsYT0T+<9.+C  O13.+  O13(^ H#(K1: O13(K130   :.+ 1*: (* 13Z‘ B # O: E13D(K13  O13$"T  Rš ›œ X uš V ? i  u˜ ![v & X“,-‘ “p  Q'v v!?v  'T O TVIT 05'e & T RT&'+T , L š ›   ^ž3˜ u˜  ž-Pš * , C%/o0T |6vr B T %5'%%Z!  >T+to 3& O:Z! IT361: (!& + TT

+3(K5'13.ZTV\@JK1^3 +613d (W  -.+1*: +(* 13Z‘ 0 3+ $S'Hh W IBS'0   CQ0 @+%+ O*5QT ˆž- ž-i $  š-œž* Rš ž-V˜:ž$š Rš›œ _ž " š  C0!& %+ E{'!+ +  (   +vvO“Q!Z“ r r“QT |6v vInWTV+ %'13(*(T[Vž* ˜: iE  h›Ež u   X:  Rš _ž-+T , C%Q/90!Zv  pT |6v0“O<T 06/^ F Tˆ<[

+4X(*+(*613C + -: +8VT  '!Vsf 5  O43vv“rr“T |6v<T  Hi  +ZT  +(*% V3(*0a0 O3++E@Q5a 3 @& @+(K13  13Q1D(*  13C & 5'(*(TZG˜: hVž  ž* + hQ  š  V {Q“KvO,-‘v @  +v  p![“ rrvT |6v{ T  Z!  T  " 03+8'!+ & T&sf   13.& TW%13  13    e + 1: O13  +31*3 Z%+(*+$3(*(K4X E0'F 3 C E>'(T Y + iD+ :+_ž V

uš V ˆ [ " " Rš ž-&˜-ž-! , %+65)“ qO4gD%+ %+(K1ev!&“ r r'!&<[ 3 Q13! n9 +  'T |6v0wO T  C@V3'T&D%13. 361: 13c(* %3(Wf I.5' V3+80 63+ E10T 9 š0˜O  i) [dX -" *W +›œ'š ›š C ž-_žCW š hi› !"v  q'T |6vp T  "Z + T #T'U +T+W%'13  O13%+(K13e&-S$ H +13%'3(L@Q5) I(K1: 13(K130 " E+E  + a3 :."T "$&$%$ ?š

_ž DV Y˜: hˆž :+_žh Qž-V˜:ž-! “wKv0r,-‘v{!"“rrT |6v  O  RT "O (*kT W &' /9 8(D f :  +.(‘o=(*%3-5QT Rš ›> hV Xš u˜ 3 $ K ^ O !&“‘ w  Q q'!?v  p'T |6vqI\IT&sf 3f &)T RT  O1: ZTVs)%13 -4_(K1: +C 3+ Hh+ 13%': Z(*+CF (*(*6B&0 O13 "T "+ž *9 P _ž3ž-+i :+_ž V uš V Rš

ž-V˜:ž$šG˜: hVž = ž* + i !v & qT |6v  O $T+s) 3! T+<[ 8 .& (*.+!+ & T+\8 'T   4u13 4u/9: 1*: +(KHi 3  O13 f@& (*0) +$ &13 ]%+ Q13k+I  (L/L613./o :(T 9 P - :+_ž V  ušV * š-œ š f  h›ž u (" :_žh Qž-+R+Xš 0Qž> Dž- Xž-VY VQž-›ž-+![v   'T “ rOInWT eT B #  ED +nWT&+

%'13(*(TV?1*361g5)@& (*0 S133& "(* E 361g5 H# 13  30  1*1*3@+%'13(T  '  !Vsf 5“rrT “v- T  IT B #  +fnWT+&  %13(*(T  Q%+@V‘R $Oˆ13Q Hh D$ E+> &a (*(*6B&0 O13"T 9 š0˜:ž3ž h i+ž 9 P i " :_ž &  uš & Rš ž-&˜:ž$š f u  c  hX ? u už [  ( M00!ˆ“rr“T ““0InWT B #  & ' E1*3 %"!

#T W .+ 0 "! T+<  8u! & ˆT P E +  'T " 13Q1L(*  13c+S'+'‘R 3 @& @(K13 & 65(*(T  c  ![v & q'T “ OIˆT& 13 ."! - $T c 8  $%': '!' +f<T e & T c  E4X610‘ c E> +)'1313+IH (Wf/L(LF'(T ,"$%$&$  h›ž u!+p'KvO,-!   %& O*54Ksf O3-.Yv   'T “{<TV(! IT W %+(*(* V %+(!& +nWT&+ %'13(*(TV<9. 4X1*3‘R5+ E+SHh I%+61364_ E+(* & 

@JK13(T  i :_ž &  uš & Rš #š  '& ^!+ + ( w r  'wQv0q'!" 10Tˆv & q  QT “w0 TV.+" + T&sf 8VT  3  k0)%13(L +)    (* EQ1: O13 "T ,"$&$%$ y ?š _ž DV Y˜: hVž :_žh Qž-V˜:ž-!&““uq,-‘ qq q  rwQ!“rr r'T “ pOIˆT >T+<[ .+- 06/^  E &IT .ZT&Df + 65130   E + 3(*fH?  3 :.+(L13$ V3(* & ka +  :

8ˆT <[:.++0 Z3 V *10!&1: 'Hh:  3(*61g5Q!+“ r r'T 0IIT+<9k +-1: 8(L & TnoQ8VT&sf 3(K5 (‘oMHF: E/o 38EHh %&'E + 65'(*(T +  Ož &š !+{+u,-!&“ r rrT “ qO TU 13 0!ˆsYT&no.3(K13! $T&+'!V &)eT T+"T "(*(* +(L0 30aHF3 l13.30 O13 &a 05' EQ19H# 13: @Q513C 1: [$@': *5QT ,"$&$%$ Rš ›Wœ _ž “'X“ ,-‘ pp  !Z+@3%+ *5dv  T  O

 RT'U Q5'"!+ˆT %  (! - $T&'%+Z!  ˆ.+ ! sYTVnok-*/L(*8u!V &tWT+ލFˆTˆ E64g %13  13    + 1: O13 "T )" E $& L L' i " Ph  Rš ž-V˜:ž$š  ›E + Rš ›Wœ _ž :+_ž ˜ ^š !&<[ 8Q5Q!  +  %65  O4:v'!&“ r r'vT