History of Computing - PowerPoint Presentation

History of Computing
History of Computing

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Social and Ethical Computing Historical Development of Computing Development of the Internet Development of the World Wide Web The Emergence of Social and Ethical Problems in Computing ID: 510161 Download Presentation

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Slide1

History of Computing

Chapter 1Slide2

Introduction to Social and Ethical Computing

Historical Development of Computing

Development of the Internet

Development of the World Wide Web

The Emergence of Social and Ethical Problems in Computing

The Case for Computer Ethics EducationSlide3

Historical Development

Before 1900AD

Man sought to improved life through the invention of gargets

.

First utility tools recorded dealt with numbers

First recorded on bones – 20,000 to 30,000 B.C.

First place-value number system in place – 1800 B.C.

Abacus – Mother of Computers – 1000 B.C. and 500 B.C.

Zero and Negative Numbers – 300 B.C. and 500 A.D.

1500AD and 1900AD lot of activities in the development of computing devices

Driven by commerce

1500 Leonardo

da

Vinci invented mechanical calculator

1621 invention of the slide rule

1625 Wilhelm

Schichard’s

mechanical calculator in

1640

Blaise

Pascal’s Arithmetic Machine

Major breakthrough in speed up

1800 AD with the invention of the punched card by Joseph-Marie Jacquard

Revolutionized computing

Quickly spread in other fields

Speed up computation and storage of informationSlide4

Historical Development

Before 1900AD

1830 AD exciting period

1830 - Charles Babbage’s Analytical Engine

George and Edward

Schutz’s

Difference Engine

Within a decade - major milestone

George Boole’s invention of Boolean Algebra

Opened fields of mathematics, engineering, & computing

Lead to the new frontiers in logicSlide5

Historical Development

Before 1900AD

Mid 1850 through the turn of the century

1857 - Sir Charles

Wheatstone’s

invention

Paper tape to store information

Created new excitement in the computing community of the time.

Huge amounts of data could be entered & stored

1869AD - Logic Machine by William Stanley

Jovons

~1874 - first Keyboard by Sholes

1881 - Rectangular Logic Diagrams by Allan MarquandSlide6

Historical Development

Before 1900AD

Mid 1850 through the turn of the century

1886, Charles Pierce - first linked Boolean Algebra to circuits based on switches

Major break through in mathematics, engineering and computing science

1890 - John Venn invented the Venn diagrams

Used extensively in switching algebras in both hardware and software development

1890 - Herman Hollerith invented the Tabulating Machine

Utilized Jacquard’s punched card to read the presence or absence of holes.

The data read was to be collated using an automatic electrical tabulating machine

Large number of clock-like counters

Summed up and accumulated the results in a number of selected categories. Slide7

After 1900 AD

Computing in infancy

Century began with a major milestone

Vacuum tube by John Ambrose Fleming.

Played a major role in computing for the next half century.

All digital computer in the first half century ran on vacuum tubes.

1906 - triode by Lee de Forest in 1906.

1926 - first semiconductor transistor

Not used for several years

Came to dominate the computing industry in late years

1937 - Turing Machine by Alan Turing

Invention of an abstract computer

Some problems do not lend themselves to algorithmic representations, not computable

1942 - COLOSSUS

, one of the first working programmable digital computers Slide8

After 1900 AD

1942 – Turing designed COLOSSUS

One of the first working programmable digital computers

1939 – Vincent

Atanasoff

– 1st digital computer model

utilized capacitors to store electronic charge to represent Boolean numbers

0 and 1 used by the machine in calculations

Input and output data was on punched cards

Some doubt it ever workedSlide9

After 1900 AD

Howard Aiken – developed Harvard Mark I

1

st

large scale automatic digital computer.

also known as IBM automatic sequencer calculator- ASCC

1943, Alan Turing – COLOSSUS

Considered 1

st

programmable compute

designed to break the German ENIGMA code

used about 1800 vacuum tubes

execute a variety of routines.Slide10

After 1900

John William

Mauchly

& J.

Presper

Eckert Jr - ENICAC

Vacuum tube-based general purpose

10 feet high

Weighed 30 tons

Occupied 1000 square feet

70,000 resistors

10,000 capacitors

6000 switches

18,000 vacuum tube

No internal memory

Hard-wired

Consistently programmed by switches and diodesSlide11

After 1900

1944-1952 John William

Mauchly

& J.

Presper

Eckert Jr – EDVAC

Electronic discrete variable automatic computer

1

st

truly general purpose digital computer

Stored program instruction concept

completed in 1956

4,000 vacuum tubes and 10,000 crystal diodes

1948 - UNIVAC I

1

st

commercially available computer.Slide12

After 1900

Many companies became involved

International Business Machines (IBM), Honeywell, and Control Data Corporation (CDC) in the USA, and International Computers Limited, (ICL) in UK

Built mainframe

Hugh – took entire rooms

Expensive – use limited to big corporations

Mid to late sixties

Developed less expensive but smaller computer

Minicomputer

Timesharing concept

Let to idea of networkingSlide13

After 1900

1971 and 1976 - first microprocessor

Built with integrated circuit with many transistors on a single board

Vacuum tubes and diodes no longer used

Ted Hoff

The 4004

4-bit data path

1972 – Intel - 8008

8-bit microprocessor based on the 4004

fIrst

microprocessor to use a compiler

Specific application microprocessorsSlide14

Microprocessor

1974 -truly general purpose microprocessor

8080 -8-bit device - 4,500 transistors & astonishing 200,000 operations per second

After 1974, development exploded Slide15

Computer Software and Personal Computer (PC)

Until mid 1970s

Development led by hardware

Computers were designed and software was designed to fit the hardware.

Personal computing industry began

1976 - Apple I and Apple II microcomputer were unveiled

1981 - IBM joined the PC wars

3 Major Players

IBM

Gary

Kildall

- Developed the first PC operating system

Bill Gates - Developed the Disk Operating System (DOS). Slide16

The Development of the Internet

Internet based on 4 technologies

Telegraph

Telephone

Radio

Computers

Originated from the early work of J.C.R.

Licklider

Conceptualized a global interconnected set of computers

Concept for communication between network nodes

Packets instead of circuits

Enabled computers to talk to each other.

1961 -

Kleinrock

Published first work on packet switching theorySlide17

The Development of the Internet

Two additional important projects

Donald Davies and Roger

Scantleberg

Coining the term packet

Connected computer in Boston with one in Los Angels

Low speed dial-up telephone line

created the first working Wide Area Network

1967 Roberts - publishing the first plan for ARPNET

1968 - team, lead by Frank Heart and included Bob Kahn, developed IMPSlide18

ARPNET

Began as tool for defense contractors

Universities added

Government joined

Other countries joined

ARPANET ceased to exist in 1989

Internet was an entity to itselfSlide19

Development World Wide Web

Beginning concepts - Tim Berners-Lee’s 1989

Proposal called

HyperText

and CER

N

Enable collaboration between physicists & researchers in the high energy physics research

Three new technologies were incorporated.

HyperText

Markup Language (HTML)

hypertext concepts- to be used to write web documents

HyperText

Transfer Protocol (HTTP) a protocol

Used to transmit web pages between hosts

Web browser client software program to receive and interpret data and display results

. Slide20

Development World Wide Web

Proposal included a very important concept for the user interface

Consistent across all types of computer platforms

Enable users to access information from any computer.

Line-mode interface was developed & named at CERN in late 1989 Slide21

Development World Wide Web

Growth

Central computer at CERN with few web pages in 1991

50 world wide by 1992

720,000 by 1999

Over 24 million by 2001

1993 - graphic user interface browser

Mosaic

Popularized and fueled growth of internetSlide22

Emergence of the Social & Ethical Problems in Computing

The Emergence of Computer Crimes

Perhaps started with the invention of the computer virus

The term

virus

is derived from a Latin word

virus

which means poison

Computer virus

Self-propagating computer program

Designed to alter or destroy a computer system resource

Spreads in the new environment

Attacks major system

Weakens the capacity of resources to perform

1972 – virus used to describe piece of unwanted computer codeSlide23

Growth of Computer VulnerabilitiesSlide24

The Case for Computer Ethics Education

What is Computer Ethics

James H. Moore

First coined the phrase "computer ethics“

Computer ethics is the analysis of the nature and social impact of computer technology and the corresponding formulation and justification of policies for the ethical use of such technology .

Definition focuses on the human actions

Study, an analysis of the values of human actions influenced by computer technology.

Computer influence on human actions is widespread throughout the decision making process preceding the action

Education we study the factors that influence the decision making process Slide25

Why You Should Study Computer Ethics

Central task of computer ethics

determine what should be done

Especially whenever there is a policy vacuum

Vacuums caused by the ‘confusion’ between the known policies and what is presented

Professionals unprepared to deal effectively with the ethical issues

Can stop the vacuums

Can prepare the professionalsSlide26

Schools of Thought

Study computer ethics as remedial moral education

Computer ethics education not as a moral education but as a field worthy of study in its own rightSlide27

Justification for First Thought

We should study computer ethics because doing so will make us behave like responsible professionals.

We should study computer ethics because doing so will teach us how to avoid computer abuse and catastrophes.

Material taken from Walter Manner in “Is Computer Ethics Unique?”Slide28

Justification for Second Thought

We should study computer ethics because the advance of computing technology will continue to create temporary policy vacuums.

We should study computer ethics because the use of computing permanently transforms certain ethical issues to the degree that their alterations require independent study.

We should study computer ethics because the use of computing technology creates, and will continue to create, novel ethical issues that require special study.

We should study computer ethics because the set of novel and transformed issues is large enough and coherent enough to define a new field

Material taken from Walter Manner in “Is Computer Ethics Unique?”

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