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HowtHavotgdwwwgxteonoutatggdwFour species of mites attack wheat in Coloradox00540068ewheataurlmiteAceria tosichellais a microscopic eriophyid mite of great economic signi31cance in Colorado It vectors

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1 Quick Facts Howt Havotgd www.gxt.eonouta
Quick Facts Howt Havotgd www.gxt.eonoutatg.gdw Four species of mites attack wheat in Colorado: • �ewheataurlmite, Aceria tosichella is a microscopic eriophyid mite of great economic signicance in Colorado. It vectors the causal agents of wheat streak • �ebrownwheatmite, Petrobia latens andBanksgrassmite, Oligonychus pratensis arespidermitesthat occasionally cause economic damage to winter wheat in Colorado. Brown wheat mite infestations normally are associated with dry spring weather and usually disappear with signicant precipitation. • Banksgrassmitebeaomespestodwoung wheat when it moves o maturing corn thedall,andlessaommonlwthelate • Uintergrainmite, Penthaleus major also damageswheat,butisrareColorado. by F.B. Peairs* Mites in Wheat * Colorado State University Extension entomologist and professor; bioagricultural sciences and pest management. 12/2014 Wheat Curl Mite Field Biology. Cggs,immaturestagesand adult wheat curl mites (Figure 2) are found thewinteronwheatandothernearbw perennial grasses. As temperatures rise in thespring,mitepopulationsdetelopunder leadsheaths,insidenewlw Figure 1: Figure 2: ngah. and eventually on green tissues in the head. Eggs are placed along leaf veins. An average complete generation requires eight to 10 days. Most mites are found on the upper surface odthewoungestdullwevpandedlead,adhaaent totheligule.�ewseemtoprederthemost tender leaf tissue and therefore move to each astightrollodtheleadmargin,aontrast tothelooserrollodtheentireleadaausedbw Russian wheat aphid. Asthewheatplantdriesdown,thewheat curl mites congregate on green tissue in the upper parts of the plants where they are piakedupbwwindaurrentsandaarriedto their oversummering grass hosts. As summer hostsstarttodrwdown,thereterseproaess oaaurs, newly emerged winter wheat. Host Plants. �ewheataurlmite attaakswidetarietwodgrasses,mostlw the Agropyron, Alamos, Hilary, Hordeum, Lolium, Muhlenbergia Poa, Stipa, Triticum and Zea genera.Corn,tolunteerwheatand summergrasswweedssuahas Fact Sheet No. 5.578 Insect Series| Crops stinkgrass,witahgrassandgreendovtail,are important oversummering hosts in Colorado. Distribution. �ismiteisknowntobe widelwdistributedCuropeandNorth Ameriaa,inaludingthewheat-produaing areas of Colorado. It is likely found in most wheat-produaingareasodtheworld,sinae wheat streak mosaic occurs in these areas. Scouting and Treatment. �eonlw eective and economical controls for wheat aurlmitearepretentite,sosaoutingisnot needed. Use preventive controls in high risk areaswherewheatwasdamagedbwhail aer heading or where wheat will emerge bedoreadhaaentaorndriesdown. Destruction of volunteer wheat and the maintenanaeodtwo-weektolunteer-dree period prior to planting winter wheat in the fall are the most eective management practices for this mite and the virus diseases that it vectors. Some eective varietal resistanaeisatailable. Control of wheat curl mites with doliaraaariaideshasnotbeenshownto be e�eatite. Figure 3: Figure 4: Figure 5: kpaetkvkty. wieldmawbesoreduaedbwdroughtasto make chemical treatment uneconomical. Also,whiteeggsarepresentandred eggsaremostlwhatahed,thepopulation is in natural decline and treatment is not eaonomiaallw husti�able. Banks Grass Mite Field Biology. Fertilized female Banks grass mites move into winter wheat in the dallastheirsummerhosts,primarilw�eld aorn,begintodrwdown.Oterwintering mitesarebrightorange.Uiththeonset odwinteraonditions,themitesmoteto thearownsodwheatplants,wherethew deeduntilspring.Small,pearlwwhite eggs then are laid that mature into pale to brightgreenmaleanddemaleadults.Mites breedaontinuouslwonwheatandsummer hosts until their return to winter wheat thedollowingdall.�etimereouired to complete a generation varies with temperature and is usually 10 to 20 days. Banks grass mites produce heavy webbingtoproteataoloniesaonsisting odeggs,immaturesandadults(Figure 6). Colonies usually are found on the undersides of leaves. Damaged leaves rst beaomewellow,thenbrownandnearotia. Heavy populations can kill small plants and reduce kernel size in larger plants. Host Plants. Banks grass mite attacks widetarietwodgrasses.InColorado,it isaonsideredtobeseriouspestodaorn andanoaaasionalpestodturd,sorghum and wheat. Distribution. Banks grass mite has beendounddamaginggrassesmanw parts of the Americas and Africa. It is doundthroughoutthegrain-growingareas od Colorado. Scouting and Treatment. Banks grass mite most commonly damages Colorado winter wheat in the fall in areas near maturing eld corn. Insecticide applications to�eldmarginsborderingaorno�enare sucient to prevent economic damage. Spring infestations are not common in the state. Information on miticides registered doruseagainstbrownwheatmiteaanbe found in the High Plains Integrated Pest ManagementGuide,highplainsipm.org. Winter Grain Mite Field Biology. Uintergrainmite hastwogenerationsperwear.�e�rst beginsthedallastheotersumme

2 ring eggs hatch aer rains provide a
ring eggs hatch aer rains provide adequate Figure 6: Brown Wheat Mite Field Biology. Brown wheat mite (Figure 3)spendsthesummerthesoilas whiteeggresistanttohot,drwaonditions. Inthedall,asaooler,wetteraonditions return,theseeggsstarttodetelopand hataha�er1.-dawinaubation.Female mites mature aer feeding on wheat for abouttwoweeksandthenlawround,red eggs (Figure 4) that give rise to further fall (one or two) and spring (two or three) generations.Maleshatenotbeenobserted in this species. As summer conditions return,whiteotersummeringeggsare produced. Both red and white eggs are plaaedonsoilpartialesadhaaenttowheat plants (Figure 5). Brown wheat mites feed on plant sap during the day and spend the night thesoil.�eiraatititwpeaksatabout mida�ernoononwarm,aalmdaws(the besttimetosaout).�ismiteisnota�eated bwaoldtemperatures,butpopulationsare ouiaklwreduaedbwdritingrainsodinah or more. Host Plants. Bamagedrombrown wheatmitehasbeenreporteddromwide tarietwodaultitatedplants,inaluding sorghum,onions,druittrees,aarrots, aotton,lettuae,iris,aldaldaandaloter.In Colorado,thismiteisaonsideredtobe pestprimarilwoddrought-stressedwinter wheatandKentuakwbluegrassturd. Distribution. Brown wheat mite is a pestodsmallgrainsmostsmallgrain- produaingareasodtheworld.InColorado, itismostaommonondrought-stressed winter wheat on the eastern plains. Scouting and Treatment. Management of volunteer wheat is an important pretentitemeasuredorbrownwheat mite,asitiswithseteralwinterwheat pests. Any management practices that serve to minimize drought stress are also important.Onaeanoutbreakoaaurs, howeter,ahemiaalaontrolistheonlw e�eatite management. �eeaonomiathresholddorthispest isnotwellde�ned,butitisatleastseteral hundredmitesperrow-doottheearlw spring.�is�gurewillinareasewith lower wheat prices and decrease with higher wheat prices. It oen is dicult to hustidwahemiaaltreatment,sinaebrown wheat mite infestations are associated with drought stress. If a driving rain of atleastinahoaaurs,miteletelswill besigni�aantlwreduaedregardlessod ahemiaaltreatment.Iditdoesnotrain,arop Upkvgtukty.U.U. CUU moisture.FeedingpeaksBeaemberor January. Second generation feeding peaks in March or April. Populations decrease and oversummering eggs are produced as temperaturesbeaomeundatorablwwarm. Newlw-hatahedmitesdeedonlead sheaths and tender shoots near the ground. Olderimmaturesandadultsdeedhigherup on the plants at night and on cloudy or cool daws.�ewmotetothesoilsurdaaeandinto the soil to seek moisture and to avoid warm temperatures.Uintergrainmiteaatititw isgreatestbetweenanddegreesF. hot,drwdaws,itmawbeneaessarwto dig 4 to 5 inches into the soil to nd the mites.�emitesarenotharmedbwhigh humiditw,raindall,shortperiodsodsleetor aoter,orbwgrounddroxentodepthod seteral inahes. Host Plants. Favored hosts include smallgrainsandgrasses.Uintergrainmite alsohasbeenreportedtodamagelegumes, tegetables,ornamental�owers,aotton, peanut and various weeds. Distribution. Uintergrainmiteis found in temperate areas throughout the world. Since it has higher moisture requirements than other mite pests of winterwheat,thismiteisrarelwpest under Colorado growing conditions. Scouting and Treatment. Scout for winter grain mite early in the morning or duringaool,aloudwweatherwhenthismite ismostlikelwtobetisible.Cheakdormites under crust and clods on the surface of moistsoilunderwheatplants.Underhot, drwaonditions,saoutseteralinahesunder the soil. Littleisknownaboutwintergrainmite management.Indestationsprobablwshould evaeedseteralmitesperplantbedore chemical treatment is considered. Crop rotation is important. Field Key to Mites Attacking Small Grains Leaves with tightly rolled edges. Plants withahlorotiaspeaklesorstreaks,o�en stunted(swmptomsodUheatStreak Mosaia)(FigureTinw,wormlike mites,tisiblewithaidodhandlens (atleastpresentonleates. O�endoundspaaesbetweenteins (Figure 0). Wheat curl mite. Leaves nely mottled and may have ahlorotiatips(FigureHeatilw infested crops have a droughty appearanae,orwellowishtobronxed disaoloration.warm,aalmdaws brownmiteswithevtremelwlongdront (Figuremawbedoundonleates, otherwisethewaanbedoundundersoil orsurdaaedebris. Brown wheat mite. • Leatesahlorotia,smallplantsmawbe killed. Damaged areas on larger plants mawhatebrightwellowappearanae. Infested plants in the fall are oen near drying corn. Small green mites (Figure 6) on leaves or in crowns. Produces notiaeableamountsodwebbingon undersidesodleates(brownwheatmite also may produce small amounts of webbing). Banks grass mite . Heavily infested crops grayish or silvery. Plantsmawbestunted.Leadtipsappear scorched and entire leaves or plants can bekilled.Absenaeodwellowmottling typical of spider mite feeding. A large darkbrowntoblaakmite,withreddish tanororangespotiso�entisible onthebaak. Winter grain mite. Chemical Control of Mites in Wheat • Ueowt • Fgekdg • Copuwnt High Plains Integrated Pest Management Gui

3 de for Colorado, Montana, Western Nebra
de for Colorado, Montana, Western Nebraska and Wyoming, www.hkihrnakpukro.oti , • Uug • Uug • Bwhhgt • Ttgat • Gvanwatg aurl mite are pretentite, so saouting is not needed. Use preventive controls in high risk areas where wheat was damaged bw hail aer heading or where wheat will emerge bedore adhaaent aorn dries down. Destruction of volunteer wheat and the maintenanae od two-week tolunteer-dree period prior to planting winter wheat in the fall are the most eective management practices for this mite and the virus diseases that it vectors. Some eective varietal resistanae is atailable. Control of wheat curl mites with doliar aaariaides has not been shown to be e�eatite. Figure 3: Figure 4: Figure 5: kpaetkvkty. wield maw be so reduaed bw drought as to make chemical treatment uneconomical. Also, white eggs are present and red eggs are mostlw hatahed, the population is in natural decline and treatment is not eaonomiaallw husti�able.Field Biology. Fertilized female Banks grass mites move into winter wheat in the dall as their summer hosts, primarilw �eld aorn, begin to drw down. Oterwintering mites are bright orange. Uith the onset od winter aonditions, the mites mote to the arowns od wheat plants, where thew deed until spring. Small, pearlw white eggs then are laid that mature into pale to bright green male and demale adults. Mites breed aontinuouslw on wheat and summer hosts until their return to winter wheat the dollowing dall. �e time reouired to complete a generation varies with temperature and is usually 10 to 20 days.Banks grass mites produce heavy webbing to proteat aolonies aonsisting od eggs, immatures and adults (Figure 6). Colonies usually are found on the undersides of leaves. Damaged leaves rst beaome wellow, then brown and nearotia. Heavy populations can kill small plants and reduce kernel size in larger plants.Host Plants. Banks grass mite attacks wide tarietw od grasses. In Colorado, it is aonsidered to be serious pest od aorn and an oaaasional pest od turd, sorghum and wheat.Distribution. Banks grass mite has been dound damaging grasses manw parts of the Americas and Africa. It is dound throughout the grain-growing areas od  Colorado. Scoutingreatment.anks grassite most commonly damages Coloradowinter wheat ithe fall in areas nearmaturing eld corInsecticide applicationsto �eld margins bordering aorn o�en aresucient to prevent economic damage.Spring infestations are not common in thestate. Information on miticides registereddor use against brown wheat mite aan be Winter Grain MiteField Biology. Uinter grain mite has two generations per wear. �e �rst begins the dall as the otersummering eggs hatch aer rains provide adequate Brown Wheat Mite Field Biology. Brown wheat mite (Figure 3) spends the summer the soil as white egg resistant to hot, drw aonditions. In the dall, as aooler, wetter aonditions return, these eggs start to detelop and hatah a�er 1.-daw inaubation. Female mites mature aer feeding on wheat for about two weeks and then law round, red eggs (Figure 4) that give rise to further fall (one or two) and spring (two or three) generations. Males hate not been obserted in this species. As summer conditions return, white otersummering eggs are produced. Both red and white eggs are plaaed on soil partiales adhaaent to wheat plants (Figure 5).Brown wheat mites feed on plant sap during the day and spend the night the soil. �eir aatititw peaks at about mida�ernoon on warm, aalm daws (the best time to saout). �is mite is not a�eated bw aold temperatures, but populations are ouiaklw reduaed bw driting rains od inah or more.Host Plants. Bamage drom brown wheat mite has been reported drom wide tarietw od aultitated plants, inaluding sorghum, onions, druit trees, aarrots, aotton, lettuae, iris, aldalda and aloter. In Colorado, this mite is aonsidered to be pest primarilw od drought-stressed winter wheat and Kentuakw bluegrass turd. Distribution. Brown wheat mite is a pest od small grains most small grain- produaing areas od the world. In Colorado, it is most aommon on drought-stressed winter wheat on the eastern plains.Scouting and Treatment. Management of volunteer wheat is an important pretentite measure dor brown wheat mite, as it is with seteral winter wheat pests. Any management practices that serve to minimize drought stress are also important. Onae an outbreak oaaurs, howeter, ahemiaal aontrol is the onlw e�eatite management. �e eaonomia threshold dor this pest is not well de�ned, but it is at least seteral hundred mites per row-doot the earlw spring. �is �gure will inarease with lower wheat prices and decrease with higher wheat prices. It oen is dicult to hustidw ahemiaal treatment, sinae brown wheat mite infestations are associated with drought stress. If a driving rain of at least inah oaaurs, mite letels will be signi�aantlw reduaed regardless od ahemiaal treatment. Id it does not rain, ar