in therapy and research ANTIBODIES   ntib die in therapy and re ear Antibodies can accuratel  nd and detect almost an mole ule
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in therapy and research ANTIBODIES ntib die in therapy and re ear Antibodies can accuratel nd and detect almost an mole ule

These b nd partners also known as tar et molecules r anti ens are often parts of proteins which are the most important components of livin cells Antibodies are therefore ideal search en ines for detectin minuscule amounts of a art cular tar et molec

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in therapy and research ANTIBODIES ntib die in therapy and re ear Antibodies can accuratel nd and detect almost an mole ule




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Presentation on theme: "in therapy and research ANTIBODIES ntib die in therapy and re ear Antibodies can accuratel nd and detect almost an mole ule"— Presentation transcript:


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016 in therapy and research ANTIBODIES
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017 ntib die in therapy and re ear Antibodies can accuratel fi nd and detect almost an mole ule. These b nd partners, also known as tar et molecules r anti ens, are often parts of proteins, which are the most important components of livin cells. Antibodies are therefore ideal “search en ines” for detectin minuscule amounts of a art cular tar et molecule, and are used da ly as tools, or rea- ents, n research laborator es worldw de. In 2004, researchers pent approximatel US 800 million on antibodies. Ant bod es also

play a cruc al role n d nos var ous cond i- ions, such as testin blood serum for the presence of various atho ens. Ar uably the r most mportant appl cat on s as ru treatments. Companies must invest in many years of in- ensive research and trials as well as meetin part of the hi evelopment costs before an antibod is approved for use as therapeut c a ent. At the moment, 17 ant bod es are ava abl e as ru MorphoSys is currently active in two areas, therapeutic antibodies and research an tibodies. In the therapeutic sector, MorphoSys is developing new antibody-based drugs, both for its own account

and in collaboration with partners. In the research sector, MorphoSys is a major provider of antibodies and related technologies which are used as tools to support scientifi c research. Since HuCAL GOLD, MorphoSys’s core tech no logy, is the source of highly speci c antibodies for both markets, the Com- pany is able to participate in the growth of both sectors. HuCAL antibodies func tion in various ways to meet the demands of biological research, diagnosis, and therapy.
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1. Allergy tests 2. Testing for HIV and other infectious diseases 4. Environmental analysis such as

pesticide testing 3. Pregnancy testing Biochips for protein research 5. BSE testing and research 6. Testing for autoimmune diseases 8. Testing the thyroid function 7. Antibodies as Tools in Basic Research and Diagnostics ll methods of discovery in biotechnolo y and medicine are based on an understandin of fundamental biolo ical proc- sses and livin systems. Which structures in the cells o li in or anisms carry out which functions ? How do these tructures communicate with each other and how is their alfunction connected with particular diseases ? How do chronic diseases such as cancer or

Alzheimer’s disease eve op ntibodies lie at the heart of the various laboratory tech iques used to address these questions. They are powerful tools in basic research because they reco nize their anti- ens with outstandin specifi city. This allows researchers to dentify molecules that cannot be seen with the naked eye, and, by manipulatin these molecules, to draw conclusions about the function of proteins of interest. ntibodies are also routinely used for verifi cation in various areas of dia nostics and analysis. Common applications in clude the detection of viral or other types of

infection, rec nition of aller ies, and measurement of hormone levels in blood. They are also used in environmental analysis to pro vide evidence of contamination or the presence of harmful chemical substances. Antibodies to Fight Disease ntibodies are an essential component of the human im mune system. Usin antibodies to ht disease is a lo ical extension of their natural role, and researchers have been workin on such applications for decades. All therapeutic applications of antibodies are based on their ability to rec - nize specifi c tar et molecules. For example, antibodies se a

variety of methods to reco nize and attack tumors. 018 Antibodies in Research and Diagnosis antib die in therapy and re ear ch
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Testing for infections is often performed by testing for antibodies produced in response to an infectious agent, rather than by testing directly for the infectious agent. An example of such antibody-based diagnostic tests is the ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay), which is used in the study of HIV and other viral infections. The base of a reaction vessel is coated with viral protein and the blood of the patient is tested. After several washing

steps, antibodies only remain behind in samples from infected patients. These antibodies are detected using a second antibody, which is linked to an enzyme detection system that produces color in the fi nal reaction step. Antibodies Help to Recognize Illnesses Vi ral prote in 1. Ant bod . Ant bod w th enz 019 ntib die in therapy and re ear
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Antibodies use different strategies for fi ghting disease. ff ector cell arget cel React ve cell ross-Linkin How Therapeutic Antibodies Work Basic research has shown that it is often possible to iden ify mali nant cells throu h

molecules on their surface, nown as tar et molecules. Ant bod es can be used to rec ze and attack cells that carry character st c tar et olecules. MorphoSys is able to identify a tar et-specifi c antibod with this abilit of the HuCAL GO ant bod ibrary. To ht cancer, therapeutic antibodies are carried n the bloodstream to the tumors and b nd the r tar et mol- ecules. The fact that the bind labels the tumor cells as ealth , and this stimulates other components of the mmune system, such as pha ocytes, to attack these cells. n example of this t pe of therapeutic antibod is the R202

anticancer antibod from MorphoS s. Man diseases arise not from an individual unhealth cell, but from an undesired interaction amon cells or from mis uided ommun cat on, wh ch s normally med ated by messen er molecules. Dru s based on ant bod es can also attack these ypes of disease by inhibitin , or blockin , the interaction be- ween mo ecu es or ce ll s. nother mechanism exploits the characteristic surface anti- ens displayed on the surfaces of unhealthy cells in a differ- ent manner. Antibodies bind and link these surface anti ens to ether. This process tri gg ers the cells to die or

self-destruct, and they under o processes known as necros s, pro rammed cell death or apoptosis. The HuCAL antibod D90C3 e- veloped n collaborat on w th otech, s used n an ap- plication of this t pe 020 antib die in therapy and re ear ch
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Antibodies Explain the Basis of Life Fluorescence microscopy is a frequently used scientifi c technique that uses antibod- ies to visualize proteins in cells or even in whole tissues (immunohistochemistry). The technique is performed using very thin slic- es of a tissue sample or even single cells, which the antibodies can penetrate. The

antibodies are coupled with a fl uorescent dye, which can be excited by a laser and visualized under a specialized microscope. In this fi gure, the antibodies are binding to and labeling the cellular cytoskeleton. 021 he applications of therapeutic antibodies can be expanded by “armin ” the antibodies. Antibodies can be armed by bein oupled to a second ent , such as a rad oact ve molecule or cytotoxic a ent. Examples of armed antibodies include the nt cancer ant bod es Zeval in an Bexxar wh ch are cou pled to rad sotopes. The ant bod es act as messen ers that ransport the rad oact

ve mater al to the tar et cells, wh ch n s case are B cells that have under one enet c alterat ons nd thus became tumor cells. The amount of radioactivit sed is carefully re ulated and minimized, which also mini mizes the exposure of other health tissues to radioactivit . A si lar mechan sm s appl ed n the ant body Mylotar wh ch s d rected a nst lymphoma cells and s coupled to a chemo herapeutic a ent. The antibody binds the surface protein f a cancer cell and enters the cell’s interior. The chemothe r- peut c a ent acts here and the unhealthy cell s destroyed Dye Antibod Clll t klt ntib die

in therapy and re ear