://www.youtube.com/watch?v=. Zvnhg1dja1E. 2.20 min . https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=. avTb5yctHvA. 3.30. Lolita. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=. avTb5yctHvA. from 48 min on. Merskin. (2004). ID: 224137
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from 48 min onSlide2
and fascinating mediated portrayals of young girls as inviting and willing participants in their own sexual
The message from advertisers and the mass media to girls (as eventual women) is they should always be sexually available, always have sex on their minds, be willing to be dominated and even sexually aggressed against, and they will be gazed on as sexual objects.Slide3
the sociological and cultural context within which girls are sexualized, explore ideas about the use of adolescent girls’ bodies in fashion
Galician’s (2004) seven-part media analysis framework, and reflect on the potential consequences of sexual
girls in the advertisementsSlide4
In contemporary culture, the name Lolita has become synonymous with forbidden lust and love of preadolescent, and by extension, adolescent girls.
at sexualized portrayals of girls appropriates them for male consumption
of the American girl” (
, 2001, p. 133) is found in television programs, movies, video games, music videos, magazines, and popular culture.Slide6
Hollywood had and has
underage beauties. Mary Pickford, Deanna Durbin, Carroll Baker,
, Hayley Mills, and Sue
ll were teens
when their careers began, became known for portrayals of underage nymphets “who enjoyed the attentions of men but made a game of arousing them” (Sinclair, 1988, p. 92).Slide7
a version of the teenage tart in cultivating a climate of acceptability and not only in the advertising contained within them.
an extensive study of images of children, crime, and violence in Playboy, Penthouse, and Hustler magazines,
(1990) found during the period from 1954 to 1984, 6,004 images of children (in cartoons and advertising
accounted for 24% of all representations containing childrenSlide8
Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, advertising became the domain of sexual symbolism and seduction
adolescent girls are continually “marketed as highly sexualized beings, ready to cater to the whims of men” (Asher, 2002, p. 23).Slide9
Fashion advertising imagery is replete with photographs in which women are “dressed down” like little girls
, young girls are “dressed up” as grown women, offering a veritable visual feast based on pedophiliac fantasy (
The strategy behind these advertisements goes beyond the
of adolescent girls but supports an ideology of lower regard and class status for women and children (
Ideology is defined as “those images, concepts and premises which provide the framework through which we represent, interpret, understand, and ‘make
some aspect of social existence” (Hall, 2003, p. 89)
(1969) suggested ideology provides “a
the imaginary relation of individuals to the real condition of existence”
Women in the Media (advertisements objectifying and sexualizing women)Slide12
(1995) five elements of media literacy
awareness of the impact of the media,”
recognizing media content as a “resource for cultural insight,”
the process of mass communication,
developing strategies to analyze and discuss media messages” and as a result,
enjoyment and appreciation of media content (pp. 2-3).
adds 2 more
to the 5 above:
of media content, discussion of the effects of the
steps for change.Slide13
In the following section, Galician’s “seven-step dis-
” model is applied to four
fashion advertisements to unveil the façade of implied sexual innocence
DIS-ILLUSIONING GIRL IMAGES IN FASHION ADVERTISEMENTS
Step 1: Detection (finding/identifying).
Step 2: Description
Step 3: Deconstruction
Step 4: Diagnosis.
Step 5: Design.
Step 6: Debriefing.
Step 7: Dissemination.Slide14
According to Foucault, as described by Lewis (2002), sex is discussed and presented by social institutions to control it, which by extension also can “incite and facilitate modes of sexual experience” (p. 302).
symbolic reading of adolescent girl bodies in fashion advertisements reveals that what is being procured, offered, and sold is a point of
supports an ideology that sexualizes girls and infantilizes women to control them and to legitimize that control.Slide15
1: Detection (finding/identifying
print publications ( Vogue, Elle, Cosmopolitan, and The
advertisements display girls positioned and made up to look older (
, and Gucci) and the fourth is of
made to look like a
Step 2: Description.
is a high-end Italian-based, international lingerie
company that has global retail affiliations. In The New York Times (
, 2004), the company ran an advertisement featuring a young woman
to be a preteen girl.
wearing a pale blue lace demi and matching G-string type bikini
against a shadowy cream-colored wall. Her hands reach down
her bottom. Her gaze is somnolent and she looks directly at the viewer
The second advertisement is for Baby
, a clothing - young girls
, positioned, and prepared in ways that border on pornographic - an
girl seated on a bright lemon-yellow chair. Her legs are spread
the seat, she is leaning on her right elbow, head turned sidewise
pink glossy lips wrapped around her thumb. She wears a bright
satin jacket that is unzipped to below her cleavage. The jacket is short
enough to reveal her bare stomach, and her sky blue silk short shorts (they
the crease between top of thigh and hip area) are emblazoned with huge
cat eyes, one on each side of her hips, in a way that draws the
to her crotch area. She stares directly at the spectator with a seductive
-and-get-me kind of look that communicates, “When I look like this
get what I want, and I know it's what you want. Look at me, what are you
Step 3: Deconstruction.
is an essential component of adolescent
curiosity and, based on media representations, a clear path to popularity
and most importantly, with boys. It is a time of conflicting demands—
appeal to boys, but not too much; appear
, but be virginal.
“parts”—breasts, hips—are developing, she is also learning what those
, are expected to do, and what behaviors accompany becoming feminine in
American society. Thus, she learns to fashion, adopt, and present a false self
Kate Moss (and all things Calvin)was frequently
child like and exploitable—frolicking in her underpants or lying
(1995) pointed out that “use of the pseudo-child technique—
adults dressing and acting like children—is standard fare in pornography”Slide20
Step 4: Diagnosis. Myths are recurring stories “that determine a
about the world, about themselves, about what behaviors
have meaning or value beyond the real” (Galician, 2004, p. 34).
They are the mainstay of media content and communicate a version of reality
. Using images of prepubescent and pubescent girls (or grown
to look that way) in advertising activates and facilitates voyeuristic
what is appropriate, inappropriate,
, and safe.Slide21
Step 5: Design.
be a realistic reframing of these advertisements?
should be portrayed as
healthy and realistic ways that have relevance to their lives. If the
or brand is an article of clothing or fashion line, then it logically
follows to show that
item in a
on realistic-looking examples of the
of the advertisement. For example, if the product is a swimsuit, why
the model swimming?Slide22
Step 6: Debriefing.
oppositional reading of these advertisements
what is really for sale goes beyond the product (if the product is even
a site of power, the body is “conceived in terms
inscribed, constituted or rendered meaningful in representation and culture
Lewis, 2002, p. 302). In the Gucci advertisement, for example,
body is displayed in ways that communicate availability and willingness
body as text is written on in a way that is decipherable through use
referents defined as “message elements (visual or verbal) that serve
or educe sexual thoughts” (Reichert, 2003, p. 23).Slide23
. This approach to media analysis speaks to the
knowledge followed by action.