Anal Cancer

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Anal Cancer

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Anal Cancer




Four different types of epithelium :1.perianal skin anal verge2.(pale-colored zone) pectinate line3.mucosal folds of the anal valves, 4. transitional epithelium



The major lymphatic pathways flow to three lymph node systems. The perianal skin, the anal verge, and the canal distal to the dentate line drain predominantly to the superficial inguinal nodesLymphatics from around and above the dentate line flow with those from the distal rectum to the internal pudendal, hypogastric, and obturator nodes of the internal iliac systems. The proximal canal drains to the perirectal and superior hemorrhoidal nodes of the inferior mesenteric system.


SCC:(85% to 90% ) subtypes large-cell keratinizing and nonkeratinizing, and basaloid or cloacogenicAdenocarcinomas Adenocarcinomas from the rectal-type mucosa in the upper canal are classified as primary rectal cancers. SCC with mucous microcysts, small cell, and undifferentiated cancers.perianal skin cancers Most are squamous cell cancers, with occasional basal cell cancers and skin adnexal adenocarcinomas.

Pathologic Classification


one-tenth as common as cancers of the rectumCancers arise in the canal with three to four times the frequency of perianal cancersmore common in women The risk of anal cancer increases with age; the median age at diagnosis is from 60 to 65 years.



Sexual activitySexually transmissible virusesHuman papillomavirus infection(type 16 )HIV infection Chronic immunosuppression not due to HIVCigarette smoking

Risk Factors


HPV infection is an initiating event in the majority of cases, but HPV DNA integration is necessary for the transition from low-grade to high-grade Loss of heterozygosity at 11q23 In HIV-negative patients: allele losses as 17p, 18q, and 5q In HIV-positive patients: microsatellite instability,

Natural History


direct extension lymphatic pathways Hematogenous metastases are less commonLymphatic invasion occurs relatively early.

Natural History


Extrapelvic metastases : fewer than 10% of patients. most frequently in the liver and lungsRelapse after initial treatment is more common in the area of the primary tumor and the pelvic lymph nodes than in extrapelvic organs. Locoregional relapse rates of up to about 30% and extrapelvic failure rates up to about 20% are common Overall 5-year survival rates = of 55% to 65%.

Natural History


grow locally and may extend into the anal canal. When the site of origin is in doubt, it is conventional to classify the cancer as arising in the anal canal The ipsilateral inguinal nodes are the most common site of metastasis and are abnormal in from 5% to 20% of cases. Overall 5-year cause-specific survival rates usually exceed 80%.

Perianal cancers


NonspecificBleeding 1/2anal discomfort awareness of an anal massPruritusanal discharge Pain alteration in bowel habitsasymptomatic tumors (an inguinal node mass)Unsuspected microinvasive carcinoma is sometimes found in mucosa removed at hemorrhoidectomy

Clinical Presentation


History and physical examination Biopsy anorectal examinationPhysical examination HIVclinically suspicious nodes should be biopsyAbdominal and pelvic CT or MRICXR Transanorectal ultrasonographyCBC, R and L FT and, +_ HIV antibody

Diagnostic Work-Up


Spread to pelvic node groups, including the external iliac, common iliac, and sigmoid nodes, is classified as metastasis (M1)For perianal cancers, the regional nodes are the ipsilateral inguinal nodes.



Tumor 2 cm or less in greatest dimensionT1Tumor more than 2 cm but not more than 5 cm in greatest dimensionT2Tumor more than 5 cm in greatest dimensionT3Tumor of any size invades adjacent organ(s) (e.g., vagina, urethra, bladder) (involvement of the sphincter muscle(s) alone is not classified as T4)T4


Anal Canal TNM Classification


Metastasis in perirectal lymph nodes(s)N1Metastasis in unilateral iliac and/or inguinal lymph node(s)N2Metastasis in perirectal and inguinal lymph nodes and/or bilateral internal iliac and/or inguinal lymph nodesN3


Tumor 2 cm or less in greatest dimensionT1Tumor more than 2 cm but not more than 5 cm in greatest dimensionT2Tumor more than 5 cm in greatest dimensionT3Tumor invades deep extradermal structures (i.e., cartilage, skeletal muscle, or bone)T4

Perianal Skin TNM Classification


MTNAge and performance status ?Women have a better prognosis Hemoglobin levels ≤10 g/L poor PxHIV-positive patients high viral load, low lymphocyte CD4+ counts, and AIDS poor Px

Prognostic Factors


The combination of RT, (5-FU), and mitomycin is the standardRadiation-based regimens produce survival rates at least equal to those of surgical series, while allowing preservation of anorectal function in the majority of patients.

Treatment of Anal Canal Cancer


Primary TumorLymph Node MetastasesExtrapelvic Metastases

Combined-Modality Therapy


5-FU (1,000 mg/m2/day for 4 days or 750 mg/m2/day for 5 days), by continuous peripheral intravenous infusion in the first and final weeks of radiation treatment mitomycin (12 mg/m2) by bolus intravenous injection on day 1 of the first course of chemotherapyThe radiation dose was 45 Gy in 20 to 25 fractions in 4 to 5 weeks or 30 GY(2OOcGY)

Primary Tumor


The patients were reassessed clinically 6 weeks after treatment. not regressed by at least 50%: Surgery 15 Gy in six fractions by a perineal field or 25 Gy over 2 to 3 days by iridium-192 implantTreatment-related morbidity requiring surgeryAfter 6 weeks, boost irradiation of 15 Gy (if complete clinical response) or 20 Gy (after partial response) was given by external-beam or interstitial irradiation.



Chemotherapy is not given during the boost radiation5YS : 80% for cancers ≤2 cm (T1) 70% for tumors 2 to 5 cm (T2) 45% to 55% for (T3 or T4) 65% to 75% overalllocal control rates (excluding salvage treatment) are 90% to 100% (T1) 65% to 75% (T2) 40% to 55% (T3 or T4 60% overall Because of case mix and the preponderance of advanced cancers in many series, generally only about two-thirds of all patients treated retain anorectal function. No more than about 5% of patients overall have lost anorectal function because of treatment-related complications



increases in total radiation dose shortening of overall treatment time exploration of combinations of radiation and chemotherapy radiation, 5-FU, and cisplatin radiation, 5-FU, and mitomycin

to improve results


random biopsies from the site of the primary tumor, and/or abnormal nodes Biopsies directed only to areas suspected clinically of harboring residual or recurrent cancerA negative biopsy does not exclude the possibility of cancer regrowth .Residual masses at the site of the original anal cancer may take several months to resolve fully after chemoradiation or radiation therapy alone .Most authors now recommend biopsy only when persistent cancer is suspected clinically.


Treatment of local residual cancer or recurrence is planned according to the extent of disease, both locoregional and extrapelvic, and the potential for preserving anorectal function. further radiation and chemotherapySurgery(APR) CT


Lymph node metastases can be eradicated by the same radiation and chemotherapy doses effective against the primary tumor. first diagnosed, pelvic nodes are present in about 30% and inguinal node metastases are detectable clinically in 15% to 20%.Approaches to the management of inguinal node metastases vary from radical dissection to excision or needle biopsy of enlarged nodes followed by radiation therapy or radiation and chemotherapy . Local control of the involved inguinal nodal areas is very good, usually ≥80% . However, 5-year survival rates are usually 10% to 20% lower than in those who do not have demonstrable node metastases

Lymph Node Metastases


Prophylactic or therapeutic radical dissection of the inguinofemoral nodes is not necessary and carries a high risk of late morbidity .Elective irradiation of clinically normal inguinal node areas, with or without chemotherapy, reduces the risk of late node failure in that area to <5% .Control of subclinical pelvic node metastases by irradiation and chemotherapy نتیجه :درمان غدد لنفاوی مثل تومور اولیه CMT

Lymph Node Metastases


10% to 20%Deaths from extrapelvic metastases alone are relatively infrequent.rate of metastasis in CMT was 10%, compared to 17% in RT

Extrapelvic Metastases


The use of radiation therapy alone, either brachytherapy or external beam, has been greatly reduced since the confirmation of improved outcome of combined modality therapy. Radiation alone is now recommended mainly to patients who are unable to undergo radiation plus chemotherapy, especially elderly patients ,or for the treatment of smaller cancers up to about 3 to 4 cm in size

Radiation Therapy alone


Surgery is the principal treatment for anal intraepithelial neoplasia extensive tumors that have destroyed the competence of the anal sphincters or fistulized into the vagina. These patients may be managed by APR with postoperative CRT, using drug schedules similar to those for primary treatment and radiation doses of about 45 Gy in 5 weeks. S →CRT colostomy → CRT→immediate or delayed resectionSerious postradiation morbidity may require surgical management,



Local excision small well-differentiated squamous cell cancers that have not invaded the sphincter muscles and are located distal to the dentate line pararectal or superior hemorrhoidal system lymph node metastases were associated with <5% of well-differentiated squamous cell cancers <2 cm in size .Excision of small cancers, especially of the distal canal and anal verge, is more expedient and generally associated with less morbidity than radiation-based treatments.

Local excision


The most common histologic type of invasive cancer of the perianal skin is SCC. BCC and adenocarcinomasWide local excision with a 1-cm margin for all histologic types.Radiation alone or in combination with chemotherapy is also effective ,but may produce symptomatic long-term skin changes. Radiation-based protocols identical to those for anal canal cancer are preferred when anal continence would be impaired by surgery.

Perianal Cancer


Perirectal and pelvic node metastases are uncommon unless the cancer involves the anal canal extensively The risk of inguinal node metastases is about 10%, primarily with category T3 or T4 tumors or poorly differentiated cancers.

perianal cancer


Elective bilateral inguinal nodal irradiation T3 or T4 tumors poorly differentiated cancersRT for abnormal inguinal nodes :similar to that for anal canal cancerRT for pelvic nodes: if the anal canal is invaded.

Rt lymph node ( perianal cancer)


The principles of management for the uncommon basal cell and adenocarcinomas of the perianal skin are similar to those for these histological types elsewhere on the skin.



The median age :the 40 decadeincreased risk of toxicity, particularly in the perineal skin and anorectal mucosa ( modifications should be based on the severity of side effects in each individual patient )Two factors may predict for heightened acute normal tissue toxicity and/or poor cancer control, namely, a CD4 count <200/µL at the start of treatment or the presence of AIDS

Patients with HIV/AIDS


Concurrent antiretroviral therapy does not reliably reduce the severity or incidence of toxicity of radiation and chemotherapy


Most arise from rectal-type mucosa Tx similarly to those that arise in the rectum The uncommon adenocarcinomas that develop from anal glands or in fistulae have also usually been managed by APR . (adjuvant CRT ? )



rare early metastases a poor prognosis Tx= surgery or radiation Systemic chemotherapy similar to that used for small cell cancers that arise elsewhere may be combined with radiation for the primary tumor and used to treat metastases, but responses are generally limited.

Small Cell Carcinomas


Only well-differentiated squamous cell cancers ≤2 cm in size situated in the distal canal appear to have a risk of nodal metastases <5% Metastases in the pararectal and internal iliac nodes in up to 30% and in inguinal nodes in up to 20% has encouraged most centers to irradiate these node groups electivelyplanning target volumes may be extensiveAcute and late morbidity can be reduced by avoiding tangential irradiation to the sensitive skin of the perineum and external genitalia or, if techniques that require tangential irradiation are elected, by the use of daily fractions ≤2 Gy. The irregularities and curvatures of the perineum and lower pelvis make homogenous radiation distributions difficult to achieve. Measurements with in vivo thermoluminescent dosimeters found dose variations of as much as 10% from predicted levels in the region of the anocutaneous junction .Computerized dose planning systems may not provide accurate values at skin–air interfaces. Care must be taken as far as possible to avoid regions of excessive dose.

Radiation Therapy Techniques

Anal Canal


Many radiation oncologists prefer to treat the primary tumor and the posterior pelvic and inguinal nodes in continuity.An A-P–opposed pair of fields is the most common arrangement: prone supine

Whole-Pelvis Techniques


upper border :lumbosacral junction if the intent is to include the common iliac, upper presacral, and rectosigmoid nodes in the treated volume. This border is commonly moved down during treatment to the lower end of the sacroiliac joints, thus encompassing only the perirectal, lower presacral, and internal iliac nodes (and, if the volume is sufficiently wide, the lower external iliac nodes), in order to lessen the risk of radiation enteritis

Whole-Pelvis Techniques


upper : lumbosacral junction or lower end of the sacroiliac joints inferior :3-cm distal to the lowermost extension of the primary tumorlateral borders:asymmetric and/or matched fields

Whole-Pelvis Techniques


The location and depth of the inguinal nodes should be obtained by axial imaging .When asymmetric and/or matched fields are used, there is potential for both over and under dosage .Considerable care is required in planning and in patient positioning.


If it is elected to irradiate the posterior pelvic tissues and inguinal nodes discontinuously for all or part of the prescription, or to treat the posterior pelvis only, the volume irradiated is reduced compared with that of whole-pelvis techniques. The anal canal and posterior pelvic nodes may be treated by multiple beam techniques. These are commonly three- or four-field techniques, such as (AP/PA) fields, and opposed lateral beams, analogous to those used for rectal cancer.

Posterior Pelvis Techniques


multiple-field conformal techniques, including (IMRT), can re-duce the mean dose to the perineum and external genitalia by about 30%. Although these techniques generally include beams tangential to the perineum, doses of at least 54 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions can be delivered with only occasional need for treatment breaks due to skin or gastrointestinal toxicity . IMRT techniques have described the use of patient immobilization devices, but have not discussed the possible effects on dose distribution of internal organ motion.




Pelvis Techniques


megavoltage equipment. without concurrent chemotherapy. primary tumor of 60 to 65 Gy, in 1.8- to 2-Gy fractions, after 40 to 45 Gy the volume is reduced. the primary tumor with a margin of 2 to 3 cm(by interstitial therapy, by external-beam therapy with a perineal field, or by multifield techniques )A dose of 15 to 20 Gy in 2 weeks is given to the reduced volume. If low–dose-rate interstitial radiation is used, a dose of 15 to 20 Gy at 0.5 cm from the plane of the implant over 24 hours (Paris system) is recommended Proven or suspected metastases in the inguinal nodes and abnormal perirectal or pelvic nodes should be treated to the same total dose as the primary tumor.

Dose–Time Factors



FIGURE 59.3. Transverse axial computed tomography of pelvis showing conformal intensity-modulated radiation therapy plan designed to include anorectum, posterior pelvic, internal iliac, and inguinal lymph nodes.



Delivery of the final reduced volume treatment phase by brachytherapy is more common in Europe than in North America, where external beam treatment is favored. effective brachytherapy, including low–dose-rate (LDR) ,pulsed–dose-rate (PDR) ,and high–dose-rate (HDR) techniques .Brachytherapy has usually been given 2 to 8 weeks after external-beam therapy. There is no agreement on whether the treatment volume should include the full extent of the initial primary cancer or only the tumor remaining at the time of implant .The brachytherapy dose depends on the composite dose of the total radiation prescription. Occasionally, significant toxicity has been encountered


Techniques to reduce the risk of serious toxicity by minimizing the volume irradiated , avoiding fully circumferential implants ,and reducing the dose to the uninvolved anal circumference ,have been described. The merits of adjuvants to brachytherapy such as intracavitary or interstitial hyperthermia or concurrent chemotherapy are unproven.


When radiation is given with concurrent 5-FU and mitomycin, or 5-FU and cisplatin, some modification of these dose–time guidelines is usual. Increases in total radiation doses and shortening of overall time of treatment by eliminating elective interruptions in radiation (split course therapy) have been advocated.



elective breaks after about 3 weeks' treatment as required by individual patients



Overall treatment time


A dose–control relationship ? The need to continue to review dose–time factors and techniques carefully is reflected by the finding of excessive acute and late toxicity when 5-FU and mitomycin were given concurrently with high-dose radiation

Escalating the total radiation dose


When clinically normal lymph nodes are irradiated electively, doses of about 36 Gy in 18 fractions in 3.5 weeks in combination with chemotherapy appear adequate ,and doses as low as 24 Gy in 12 fractions in 2.5 weeks have been used successfully .Nodal metastases should be treated to the same dose as the primary cancer.

Lymph nodes


If small (<4 cm) perianal cancers with low risk of regional node metastases are treated by radiation, a dose of 60 to 66 Gy in 2-Gy fractions over 6 weeks may be used. A direct perineal field is preferred Orthovoltage equipment may suffice, although electrons or low energy megavoltage photons (with bolus) are used more commonly.Flattening the perineum



Usually treated by the techniques and schedules of radiation and chemotherapy used for anal canal cancers The upper border : at the lower end of the sacroiliac joints. The final phase of radiation may be given by direct perineal photon or electron therapy. Although brachytherapy may be used for the final phase, full treatment of perianal cancers by brachytherapy has been associated with high rates of necrosis in some series.

Larger perianal cancers, or cancers invading the anal canal


Some nonrandomized series have described higher acute and late toxicity rates from combined modality therapy than those reported in the multicenter randomized trials. This probably results from use of different criteria for recording and reporting toxicity.

Sequelae of Therapy


CMT : moderate leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, anoproctitis, and perineal dermatitis Cisplatin :marrow toxicity may be less, but at radiation doses of 59.4 Gy in 6.5 weeks, acute soft tissue toxicity rates are similar incidence (<2% overall) of mortality associated with acute toxicity, usually as a result of neutropenia with sepsis.


after doses of 30 Gy :NO5% to 15% of those receiving higher radiation dosesRisk of pelvic fracture ?

late toxicity


changes in anorectal function such as urgency anorectal telangiectasia perineal dermatitis dyspareunia, and impotenceThese lower-grade side effects are usually managed medically with varying success.

Less serious side effects

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