‘Golden Surfer’ protoplast regeneration. Tom Eeckhaut, . Silvia Bruznican . and Johan Van Huylenbroeck. Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO) – Plant Sciences Unit – Applied Genetics and Breeding, . ID: 460844
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‘Golden Surfer’ protoplast regenerationTom Eeckhaut, Silvia Bruznican and Johan Van HuylenbroeckInstitute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO) – Plant Sciences Unit – Applied Genetics and Breeding, Melle, Belgium Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
Commercial chrysanthemum, hybridised from Chrysanthemum indicum L. (Asteraceae) (2n = 6x = 54), is the second most economically important ornamental. Theoretically, somatic hybridization has a high innovative potential. However, Chrysanthemum protoplasts, whether fused or not, have always been very recalcitrant in regeneration experiments, yielding only calli or roots. We have set up 2 experiments to evaluate the regeneration capacity of the genotype ‘Golden Surfer’.
MATERIALS AND METHODS – Stock cultures of Chrysanthemum indicum ‘Golden Surfer’ were maintained on MS medium enriched with 20 g/l sucrose, 2 mg/l glycine, 1 mg/l kinetine and 0.01 mg/l NAA (pH 6.2). In a first experiment, we cultured protoplasts isolated from leaves, petioles, nodes and internodes obtained through stock culture and from organogenic calli induced on leaf explants on MS based medium supplemented with 3 mg/l BAP and 0.2 mg/l IAA. All obtained microcalli were transferred to proliferation medium (1/2 MS with 30 g/l sucrose, 5 mg/l kinetin, 1 mg/l NAA and solidified with 4 g/l gellan gum; pH 5.8) and had grown into calli after 3-4 weeks. These calli were transferred to various SIMs (shoot induction media, MS based). After 3-4 weeks, calli were transferred to shoot outgrowth medium (MS + 0.3 mg/l BAP; pH 5.8) and periodically refreshed. In a second experiment, we selected the best SIM (containing 0.02 mg/l NAA + 0.5 mg/l BA) to induce shoot formation on callus regenerated from mesophyll protoplasts cultured in 50 µl low melting point agarose (3 g/l) beads surrounded by liquid medium. In both experiments, isolation enzymes, culture practices and media compositions were based on Eeckhaut & Van Huylenbroeck (2011).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION – In the 1st experiment, petiole, node and internode protoplasts did not yield microcalli. Altogether, 5 out of 6781 mesophyll or callus protoplast derived calli (0.07%) started regenerating shoots up to 28 weeks after the initiation of the protoplast culture (Table 1, Fig. 1). All shoots regenerated from calli protoplasts in the dark. Only 2 SIMs were effective; both were supplemented with 0.02 mg/l NAA. High cytokinin concentrations (at least 5 mg/l) did not induce shoots.
CONCLUSION – Chrysanthemum indicum ‘Golden Surfer’ protoplasts can be regenerated. Their full regeneration potential is yet unknown.
Literature cited – Eeckhaut T, Van Huylenbroeck J (2011). Development of an optimal culture system for callogenesis of Chrysanthemum indicum protoplasts. Acta Phys Plant 33: 1547-1551.
Table 1. Calli and shoots initiated from Chrysanthemum indicum ‘Golden Surfer’ protoplasts on different SIMs and after transfer to MS + 0.3 mg/l BA.
1. Chrysanthemum indicum ‘Golden Surfer’ protoplast regeneration: calli derived shoots after culture on MS + 0.02 mg/l NAA + 1 mg/l ZR (bar = 1 cm).
Experiment 10.5 IAA16400.5 IAA + 0.5 BA 192 0 0.5 IAA + 5 BA 120 0 0.5 IAA + 5 KIN 1026 0 0.5 IAA + 10 KIN 334 0 0.5 IAA + 5 ZR1334 0 0.02 NAA + 0.5 BA 131 1 0.02 NAA + 5 BA 92 0 0.02 NAA + 5 KIN 656 0 0.02 NAA + 1 ZR 677 4 0.02 NAA + 5 ZR 770 0 0.2 NAA + 0.5 BA 118 0 Experiment 20.02 NAA + 0.5 BA23725
ZR = zeatine riboside
flowers (bars = 1 cm) and plants (bar = 10 cm) acclimatized from stock plants (left) and protoplast derived shoots (right).
In the 2
experiment, 237 calli were harvested. Among those, 25 (10,55%) formed shoots on MS + 0.3 mg/l BA after bud induction on the SIM supplemented with 0.02 mg/l NAA and 0.5 mg/l BA (Table 1). The phenotype and growth vigor of the
regenerants (Figure 2) is similar to the one of regular ‘Golden Surfer’ in vivo plants.
It is unclear whether the increased efficiency of the 2nd experiment is due to the culture system (beads versus liquid culture), protoplast source (mesophyll versus callus) or (an) other parameter(s). In following experiments, we will test the protocol on several other genotypes. If protoplasts from multiple cultivars can be regenerated, it will renew prospects for somatic hybridization in this recalcitrant crop.Slide2Slide3