How did democracy develop in Athens?

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508 BCE . Kleisthenes. established the first . democratic government in Athens. He diminished the influential families by dividing the citizenry into . demes. and . tribes. Citizens were selected by their demes to serve on juries, engaging in this first . ID: 696677 Download Presentation

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How did democracy develop in Athens?




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Presentations text content in How did democracy develop in Athens?

Slide1

How did democracy develop in Athens?

508 BCE

Kleisthenes

established the first

democratic government in Athens

He diminished the influential families by dividing the citizenry into

demes

and

tribes

Citizens were selected by their demes to serve on juries, engaging in this first

direct democracy

Democracy threatened by the Persians under Darius and his son Xerxes

Darius “king of the Earth” invaded Greece but was routed by Miltiades at Marathon

At the battle of Salamis, the Greeks routed the much larger Persian contingent of 800 ships

Slide2

Darius and Xerxes Receiving Tribute, detail of a relief, Persepolis, Iran.

Darius’ subjects bring gifts -23 subject nations in all –each culture is recognizable by its beards and costumes.

Slide3

Golden Age

After the battle of Salamis, Pericles urged Athenians to rebuild the city in honor of

Athena

who saved the city

Pericles

- dominant figure in Athenian democracy

Principles of freedom and civic responsibility

Individuals are free under the law and distinguish themselves by their service to the

community

Slide4

The Partheon

In the clarity of its parts, the harmony among them, it represents the epitome of classical architecture

It appears symmetrical though it is built without any straight verticals or horizontals, adjusting for the distortions of the spectator’s gaze. By using

entasis

, it appears symmetrical.

It commemorates the warrior maiden goddess Athena.

Slide5

Kritios

Boy,

kouros

, Acropolis, Athens, 480 BCE.

The emphasis is on naturalistic explanation over divine explanation.

Contrapposto

(counterpoised position)

Slide6

Doryphoros

, or Spear Bearer

Contrapposto

pose

The weight falls on the forward right leg.

Slide7

Riace

Warrior A, found in the sea off

Riace

, Italy, perhaps the work of P

hidias

, 450 BCE.

It might represent Miltiades

Slide8

Lapith Overcoming a Centaur, south

metope

27,

Partheon

It represents the clash between the forces of civilization – the Greeks – and their barbarian opponents.

Slide9

The Philosophical Tradition in Athens

Pre-Socratic

: What is the nature of reality?

Sophists: itinerate teachers who claimed to teach

arete

“Man is the measure”

Socrates

opposed relativism and skepticism

Developed the dialectical method

Plato’s Republic

– delineates the futures of a perfectly just society

Society will be governed by

philosopher rulers

who are actuated by a

love of the good

and not money or honor

Plato

– idealist who sees an unchanging world of perfect forms as providing the exemplars for their terrestrial manifestations

Aristotle

– the essence of things can be abstracted from the material objects which are perceivable through empirical study

Slide10

Alexander the Great, 4th

c. BCE.

Aristotle’s pupil Alexander the Great unified Greece after the Peloponnesian Wars, and went on to conquer Persia, Egypt, Babylon, reaching as far as India.

Cross-fertilization of eastern and western cultures

Slide11

Alexander’s empire as of his death in 323 BCE and the route of his conquests.

He founded over 70 cities throughout his empire, naming many after himself

Slide12

Praxiteles, Aphrodite of

Knidos

, 350 BCE.

The sculpture is a frank celebration of the body – reflecting in the female form the humanistic appreciation for the dignity of the human body.

Slide13

Slide14

The Theater of the People

Three types of drama:

Satyr plays, farce

Comedy

Tragedy

Drama developed from festivals in honor of the god of Dionysus, the god of wine

The theme of tragedies is death, and tragedies were tied to Dionysus’ function as the god of death and rebirth

Aeschylus

Sophocles

Euripides

Slide15


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