si c Gl ossary of Term s i Archaeol ogy  From www

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bajrcouk Gl ossary of common archaeol ogi cal t rms compi d 28 04 2004 absol ut e dat Absol dat ng i based upon a speci fi c dat range i y ears t at t e si or art fact can be dat d t see Relative dating apprai sal f revi ew oft en wi t e pl anni ng ID: 36304 Download Pdf

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si c Gl ossary of Term s i Archaeol ogy From www

bajrcouk Gl ossary of common archaeol ogi cal t rms compi d 28 04 2004 absol ut e dat Absol dat ng i based upon a speci fi c dat range i y ears t at t e si or art fact can be dat d t see Relative dating apprai sal f revi ew oft en wi t e pl anni ng

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si c Gl ossary of Term s i Archaeol ogy – From www.bajr.co.uk Gl ossary of common archaeol ogi cal t rms : compi d 28/ 04/ 2004 absol ut e dat Absol dat ng i based upon a speci fi c dat range i y ears t at t e si or art fact can be dat d t (see Relative dating) apprai sal : f revi ew (oft en wi t e pl anni ng fram work) of t e SM and Hi st ori M ps et c, t deci de whet her a devel opm ent appl cat on has t e pot ent for archaeol ogy . The apprai sal m or m not becom a condi on. archaeol ogy : The sci nt st udy of past hum an l e and change t rough anal of m ri al rem s that

hum ans have left be hind (from the Greek root archaeo, eaning ancient and ogos , m eani ng st udy archaeol ogi cal moni ri ng: Archaeol ogi cal m oni ri ng i nvol ves an archaeol ogi st bei ng present i t e course of carry ng out devel opm ent works (whi ch i cl ude conservat on works), t i ent and prot ect archaeol ogi cal deposi , feat ures or object s whi h m be uncovered or ot herwi e affect ed by th e wo rk s. ( See Wat hi ng Bri aeri al phot ograph (A Ps) Phot ographs t ken from t e ai r and used t i ent archaeol ogi cal si s ei er by l w l ght for upst ndi ng m onum ent or by di

fferent crop growt on si s wi arabl fields. art fact : An object or part of an object whi h has been used or creat ed by a hum an and provi des physical clues to the activity carri ed out by hum ans i t e area of di scovery (Thi s can range from Pot ry , M ork, W oodwork, W rked St ones t rough t m rt ar sam s) (See Ecofact ) assembl age a group of artefacts found t oget er i a si ngl e context such as a grave or pit. BAJ R ( pronounced ‘B adger’) : British Arch aeo lo cal Jo Reso ce; an in web b sed organi sat on concerned wi em pl oy nt , devel opm ent assi st ance, heri ge resources and i

form at on. bri : Often created to p an o tlin e o th e req rem s th at m st b ad essed to th er with an in catio o th e sco o wo rk s th at will b req red Th is allo ws th e Co ractin Arch aeo lo st o Co an y to p ep are a W itten Sch o In stig atio d tailin th eir ap ach to m eetin th e Brief Req rem s. Can b called Pro ect Ou tlin e. CADW ( pronounced C adoo:) The governm nt agency charged wi t e prot ect on and care of t e onum ent and heri ge resources of W 14 : Dat ng t echni que usi ng t e hal f-l e of rbon 14 from organi c or form er organi c m r such as charcoal or bone. CSA : Council

for Scottish Archaeology. A charitable orga nisation established to preserve and prom ote archaeology in Scotland. CBA : Council for British Archaeology. A charitable _rgani zation established to preserve and prom ote archaeol ogy i Engl and and W s. client : The i ndi vi dual or organi sat on t at has undert aken t fund t e program of archaeol ogi cal works. Oft n t e C nt i t e Devel oper or Appl cant seeki ng pl anni ng perm ssi on. conservation : The careful prot ect on, preservat on, rest ora on, and m nagem nt of cul ral resources, including artefacts, features, and even whole or partial

archaeological sites.
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si c Gl ossary of Term s i Archaeol ogy – From www.bajr.co.uk consultant : An expert provi di ng object e and i ndependent advice to the applicant/developer on the basi s of professi onal st andards. Thei r work oft n ent seeki ng t e best sol on for t ei r cl nt rough negot on wi t e pl anni ng archaeol ogi st . It i possi bl e for a C ont ract or t be hi red as a onsul nt . context : A si ngl e uni of excavat on, whi h i oft n referred t num eri cal , and can be any feat ure, r or si ngl e el em ent of a st ruct ure. A pi for exam pl e woul d have a

cont ext num ber for t e cut and a separate num ber for each fill within the cut. contractor : A person or organi sat on com ssi oned t undert ake archaeol ogi cal research and fi el dwork ei er t a bri f or general requi rem nt for archaeol ogi cal i nvest at on set by a pl anni ng archaeologist. The Contractor m y be a sole trad er o a larg e Un it with sp ecialist staff. count y A chaeol ogi st : An archaeol ogi st em pl oy ed by a C ount C ounci as t e curat ri al archaeol ogi st responsi for at cal governm nt area. The C ount Archaeol ogi st i responsi for archaeol ogi cal tter within the

County and will m intain the Sites and Monum ents Record. (See also Curatorial Archaeol ogi st , Pl anni ng Archaeol ogi st and Heri ge/ om uni Archaeol ogi st .) cropmark : An archaeol ogi cal si no l onger vi si bl e on t e ground due t t e rem oval of upst ndi ng rem s (oft en by pl oughi ng). The si s are recorded from Aeri al Phot ographs by di fferent crop growt over buri d feat ures such as pi , di hes and wal cultura l Reso urce : oad defi ni on of a feat ure, si , st ruct ure or ot her form of heri ge el em ent t at deem ed t be of val e t t e count ry ei er on a l cal , regi onal or

nat onal l vel As wi al resources, this term relates to both the frag ile and irreplaceable nature of the resource. curat ri al A chaeol ogi st : An archaeologist with responsibility for m nagem nt of the archaeological resource. The work of such organi sat ons or i ndi vi dual i one of cul ral resource m nagem nt . C ount Archaeol ogi st s, Pl anni ng Archaeol ogi st s, Si s and M onum ent R ecord st aff, Engl h Heri ge, Hi st ori Scot nd and C ADW are al wi t rol . (See al so C ount Archaeol ogi st , Pl anni ng Archaeol ogi st and Heri ge/ om uni Archaeol ogi st .) dat a st ruct ure report

(DSR ): The ‘St uct re R port , as defi ned by Hi st ori Scot nd, i desi gned t be e i di at e product of excavat on: an i rm edi sum ry t defi ne t e quest ons and fundi ng of post-excavation analysis. desk-based assessment (DBA) : An assessm ent of bot h t e known and pot ent archaeol ogi cal resource within a specified area. A study is ca rried out on available sources such as SMRs, Map Evidence, Docum ntary Sources Aerial Photogra phs. The study will provide a background for a decision to be reached on the poten tial archaeological resource in a local, regional, national context within the

review area. development control: under t e Pl anni ng Act , t e funct ons of t e pl anni ng aut hori i deci di ng on pl anni ng appl cat ons and enforci ng com nce wi t e pl anni ng l ws. ecofact : Material wh ich can d trate th e in teractio b tween th e en ro en tal o th e lo cality an th e h an ex itatio with in th e lo cality, su ch as p llen sam les, g ain n s, fish etc. (see Artefact). Eng lish Herita (EH) : The governm nt agency charged wi t e prot ect on and care of t e onum ent and heri ge resources of Engl and envi ronment archaeol ogy : The study of the interface between th e

environm ent of a locality and the hum an activity within the area, acco lished through the study of soils, plant and anim al rem ins.
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si c Gl ossary of Term s i Archaeol ogy – From www.bajr.co.uk excavation : Int usi e fi el dwork wi a cl ear purpose, which exam ines and records archaeological deposi , feat ures and st ruct ures and recovers art acts, ecofacts and other re in s with in a sp ecified area o site. Th is will lead to b a fu rth r p am o Po st Ex cav atio an Pu licatio an perhaps further excavation. eva lua tio n : A l d program of non-i usi e and/ or i usi e fi

el dwork, whi h det rm es t e presence or absence of archaeologi cal features, structures, deposits, artefacts or ecofacts within a sp ecified area. Th is m y tak th e fo rm o an in tru iv e in stig atio o a p rcen tag o th e site, geophysical or topographi cal survey. The results of this inve stigation will establish the requirem nts for any further work. (see also Field Survey ) field survey: m lti-disciplinary study of the long-term settlem nt history of a region and its envi ronm ent set ng; cl osel rel d t ndscape archaeol ogy fi el dw al ki ng A form of evaluation that provides details

of surface features vi sible during a physical search of the site area and is a system atic obser vation of the ground surface during. The recovery of artefacts t at m i ndi cat e peri ods of occupat on i al so an i port nt part of t eval uat on (al o rm ed wal kover survey ) geophysi al survey : A m thod of seeing beneath the ground su rface using a num ber of m thodologies, cl udi ng Ground Penet at ng R dar (GPR ), R si st and M gnet It t kes a speci al t bot h uses t e fi el d equi pm ent and i rpret t e dat . W en used wi Topographi c survey t e resul can be very effective, though it is

very dependent on soil and ge ological conditions within the site area. GIS (Geo ap cal In fo rm atio System ): a ran o tech s u in th e g ap c cap ab ilities o com puters for an integrated analysis of m ps, im ag es, si s and fi nds. GIS has rapi dl becom essent t e i rpret on of fi el dwork dat and i used wi Uni and C ount archaeol ogi cal offi ces t in terp ret th e lan cap e to asses p en tia l for archaeology within an area. (GPS) Survey : ( Glo Po sitio ing Sa tellite) Very oft n t can be used for bot h Fi el d Survey t provide accurate location of newly discovered sites and also as a

tool for topographic survey, to provide a fast m thod for r ecovering thousands of 3D coordinates. There are a range of GPS receivers available, from the handheld (with a accuracy of 20m +/- to the Satellite base station variety that can be illim etre accurate). It should be rem ered t hough that GPS could be aff ected by the landscape, such as t ee cover, m ount ai ns, t bui ngs et c IFA : Institute of Field Archaeologists. It is an organisation for archaeologi sts in the United Kingdom at prom ot es professi onal st andards and et hi cs for conservi ng, m nagi ng, underst ndi ng and prom ot

ng heri ge. in situ: in its original place. histo ic b ild ing reco rd : A st ruct ure t at cont ai ns hi st ori fabri or i of cul ral si gni fi cance m requi re an HB t a num ber of Level of det The l vel range from a si phot ographi c and sket ch survey t a det d record t at m even i cl ude pai anal , dendrochronol ogy , m rt ar sam ng and ful drawn record of every st one. (sam e as st andi ng bui ng record) Historic Scotland (HS) : The governm nt agency charged wi t e prot ect on and care of t e onum ent and heri ge resources of Scot nd ndscape archaeol ogy pl aci ng si s i a wi der cont

ext usi ng a ful range of archaeol ogi cal , envi ronm ent and hi st ori cal i form at on t i rpret t em on a regi onal basi s on a l ong t e scal e. met od st at ement see bri f or project desi gn
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si c Gl ossary of Term s i Archaeol ogy – From www.bajr.co.uk pl anni ng archaeol ogi st : A person or organi sat on responsi fo r e conservat on and m nagem nt of archaeol ogi cal evi ence by vi rt ue of offi ci al or st at ut ory dut i cl udi ng for exam pl e C ount or Di st ri ct Archaeol ogi cal Offi cers and st aff of nat onal bodi es such as Engl h Heri ge C ADW and Hi st ori

Scot nd. nning co nd itio ns: condi ons at ached t a pl anni ng perm ssi on under t e Pl anni ng Act . proj ect desi gn : A written statem ent on the project' objec tives, m thods, tim etable and resources; provi di ng t e fram work for t e execut on of t e project , set out i suffi ci ent det t be quant d, cost ed, i pl em ent d and m oni red. Thi woul d norm be prepared by an archaeol ogi st or organi sat on undert aki ng t e fi el dwork, frequent i response t a bri f or speci fi cat on. ect o tline: Anot her t rm m eani ng a B f. rela tive d ting e dat ng i t e si r dat ng t echni que of st

at ng; i ol der t han t hat - If ou have a cont ext dat d t t e 17 th century then deposits beneath will be earlier though you m y be uncert how ol d preci sel . (see al so Absol Dat ng) remote sensing: the use of aerial or satellite reconnaissan ce and photography to di scover and interpret archaeological sites and landscape f eatures, whether visible on the surf ace or buried, and the use on the ground of geophy si cal i st rum nt s t l cat e buri d si s. research archive : Derived from the work done during the anal ysis phase the research archive will com ri se: st rat raphi cal uct ral art

fact , envi ronm ent and ot her cat al ogues and al ot her records as wel as det of t e m hods and sel ect on st rat gi es used. (oft en t can be cal d t e Deposi d or Prim ary Archive) sectio ns : vertical records of stratigraphy revealed by excavat on and recorded i drawi ngs and phot ographs as evi ence of t e sequence of cont ext on a si . site : An area specific description of the area for an archaeol ogi cal i nvest at on, t i usual defi ned as an area of excavation but could re fer to a building, or survey area. site archive : This contains everything that is gather ed during fieldwork

a nd will be catalogued, red an in It rep esen ts th e o ig in al reco rd o th e p ect's resu lts an will in clu th e ori al phot ographs, pl ans, recordsheet s, sam regi st ers, not ebooks et c. very of n muddy! sites and monuments record (SMR) : A database (usually com puterised and som tim es online – see web SM ) of al archaeol ogi cal si s and fi nd l cat ons from a gi ven area, usual a count ed by t e C ount C ounci and adopt ed by form al resol on. specification : A written sch e o wo rk s req red fo r a p rticu ar p ect (b y a cu rato r, p an archaeol ogi st or cl nt ), set out i suffi

ci ent det t be quant d, cost ed, i pl em ent d and m oni red. Norm ally prepared by or agreed with th e relev cu rato r. st andi ng bui g record : (see Histo ic Bu ild in Reco rd ) stratigraphy : e bui ng bl ock of archaeol ogy , where car eful excavation and recording determ ines the precise sequence of events that took place to create the deposits, cuts and features that have been uncovered. terminus a te q em, terminus p t q em: reference poi nt s i t e dat ng of a st rat raphi c sequence on a site before whi h (ant e) or after wh ich (p t) a co ex t was fo rm ed . (sim ilar to relativ e d

tin
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si c Gl ossary of Term s i Archaeol ogy – From www.bajr.co.uk test p its : a seri es of sm al (usual 1m x 1m ) excavat ons t gi ve an i ndi cat on of t e underl ng soi / deposit profiles. These m y take place prior to full evaluation, or m y be all that is required on the site. topographic survey : A detailed analysis of the ground surface of the site, a contour plan (from a flat 2D pl an t a 3D com put er m odel i produced and can hel t recogni se buri d l ndscape feat ures or features that are too slight or t oo large to see with the naked eye. tria l trenches : see

evaluation watching brief : A form al program of observat on and i nvest at on conduct d duri ng any operat on carri ed out for non-archaeol ogi cal reasons wi a speci fi ed area or si on l nd or underwat er, where th ere is a p ssib ility th at arch aeo lo cal d its m y b d stu o d stro yed Th e p am will resul i t e preparat on of a report and ordered archi e. web SMR : The onl e versi on of t e count nat onal SM gi vi ng det of t e si s, fi nd spot s and ot her i form at on known about t e heri ge of t at area. (a l of Onl e SM i avai bl e on B JR in the resource section))