BPM Process Modeling Best Practices Highlights

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BPM Process Modeling Best Practices Highlights - Description

Based on over a decade of BPM Services Engagements. Bill.Hahn@us.ibm.com. Sr. Consulting BPM Solution Architect. . Open Group Master Certified SW IT . Specialist. http://IBMBPMDemos.com. . for more information and resources. ID: 298446 Download Presentation

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BPM Process Modeling Best Practices Highlights




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Presentations text content in BPM Process Modeling Best Practices Highlights

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BPM Process Modeling Best Practices HighlightsBased on over a decade of BPM Services EngagementsBill.Hahn@us.ibm.comSr. Consulting BPM Solution Architect Open Group Master Certified SW IT Specialisthttp://IBMBPMDemos.com for more information and resources

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Outline

IntroductionDefinition of TermsFive Guidelines1) Rule of Seven2) Activity Granularity 3) Activity Description4) Inputs/Outputs5) The System LaneConclusion Q&A

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Definition of Terms

Business Process Definition (BPD)PoolSwim LaneMilestoneParticipantStep/ActivityFlow LineBusiness EventUser Story

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Business Process Definition (BPD)

A diagram that illustrates a business process includes participants, steps, activities, and sub-processesBusiness Process Definition objectives:Universally understood by both business and technologists Clearly and easily communicated in 5 minutes or less at any level of granularityExecutable in a Business Process Management System

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What is not a Business Process Definition?

Entity State DiagramsUse Cases, Use Case Relationship DiagramsSystem Relationship DiagramArchitectural DiagramWorkflow Model (Application Development), Screen Flow

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Pool

Component

Default name Description 1 Lombardi pool The default pool to hold all lanes within the BPD. You can change the name by clicking the pool and editing its properties. 2 Participant lane A default lane for end user activities. You can change the name by clicking the lane and editing its properties.

A container for all lanes within the BPD

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(Swim) Lane

Highlights role oriented activities versus the flow oriented activities

A lane has a default set of participants

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Milestones

A milestone in a process…RepresentsA period of timeGoal/transition in the processMay be expressed as a single moment in time e.g. graduationA milestone end-marker

May characterize

period of timee.g. adolescenceA milestone should be achieved just once in a BPDLooping back across a milestone is discouraged

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Participant

A

participant

is a user of the WLE environment

Sets of users are Participant Groups

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Activity/Step

A unit of granularity in a process that…Has a goal that can be expressed as a singular outcomeImplemented asTask (human or system)Sub-processCan be a human task Single participant begins the activityCan contain multiple steps, (e.g. screens in a screen flow)These steps are not process stepsCan be a sub-processImplemented as another BPD

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Sequence Flow Lines

A sequence flow line…Defines the transition from one step or event to another

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Events

A business event…Is the occurrence of a condition that triggers an activity.Can listen to catch a condition to trigger an activity or……throw a result upon occurrence.Types of events include the following:Start /EndTimerMessageException

throw

listen

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User Story

Short, high-level statement of requirementsStudents can purchase monthly parking passes onlineParking passes can be paid via credit cardsParking passes can be paid via PayPal™Professors can input student marksStakeholders and domain experts write user stories Can include both functional and non-functional requirements Indicate the estimated size/implementation effortIndicate the priorityOptionally include a unique identifierImproves traceability

See Agile Modeling at http://www.agilemodeling.com/artifacts/userStory.htm

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Five Guidelines to Better Process Modeling

IntroductionDefinition of TermsFive Guidelines1) Rule of Seven2) Activity Granularity 3) Activity Description4) Inputs/Outputs5) The System LaneConclusionQ& A

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Example of a bad Process Model

Click button to add a new line item.

Select Company in dropdown

Click OK

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Example of a bad Process Model

4 System Lanes

“Constellation” Pattern

No Milestones Defined

“String of Pearls” Pattern

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(1) Rule of Seven

Limit any view to no more than 7 steps/activities for good fit.

Select Candidate

Inform recruiter

Establish compensation package

Establish start date

Background Check

Criminal record check

Drug screen

Release Candidate from Process

Review results

Offer

Create offer letter

Transmit offer letter

Accept offer

Add Candidate To HR Records

Input employee information into database

Request equipment

Request workspace

Request access badge

Set employee status to active

Orientation

New hire orientation class

Benefits overview class

Provide orientation cd

Watch orientation cd

Complete forms

Begin Work

Meet manager

Obtain access badge

Obtain equipment

Go to workspace

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(2) Activity Granularity

Activities should be Similar in Scope at each levelLook for the String of Pearls pattern.Look for the Constellation pattern.Look for Flow Line PatternsRemember that an ActivityIs a step in a process that can be implemented as a sub-process or a task.Definition in a Process Model should stop at task granularity.A task activity is a unit of work that a single participant (human or system) starts with the intent to complete.

Purchase Groceries

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(2) Activity Granularity – Scope

Overloaded Milestone (Rule of Seven)Dissimilar in ScopeToo Granular in Detail

Plan Party

Invite Guests

Prepare Menu

Get Veggies

Get Cake

Get Ice Cream

Get Chips & Dip

Checkout

Pay with AMEX

Drive Home

Put Veggies in Fridge

Put Ice Cream in Freezer

Host Party

Welcome Guests

Serve Snacks

Serve Cake & Ice Cream

Play Games

Open Gifts

Play Games

Clean Up

Clean the House

Send Thank You Cards

Get Veggies

Get Cake

Get Ice Cream

Get Chips & Dip

Checkout

Pay with AMEX

Drive Home

Put Veggies in Fridge

Put Ice Cream in Freezer

Open Door

Set Ice Cream on Shelf

Close Door

Where do we stop?

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(2) Activity Granularity – Scope

Activities should be similar in scope at each level.

Plan Party

Invite Guests

Prepare Menu

Host Party

Welcome Guests

Serve Snacks

Serve Cake & Ice Cream

Play Games

Open Gifts

Play Games

Clean Up

Clean the House

Send Thank You Cards

Purchase Groceries

Will a

single person

complete the activity?

Will the activity be started with the

intent to finish

?

Is the

duration similar

to others at this level?

Is the goal or outcome an input for the next activity?

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(2) Activity Granularity – String of Pearls Pattern

Series of two or more activities in the same swim laneMay indicate missing participant detailsMay indicate too much detail at a low level of granularityMay indicate misalignment in scope

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(2) Activity Granularity – String of Pearls Pattern

Combine into a single Activity: Send Offer Letter

Before

3 serial activities for Hiring Manager

Review ResultsCreate Offer LetterTransmit Offer LetterAfter1 activity for Hiring Manger

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(2) Activity Granularity – Constellation Pattern

Factor constellations to a sub-process. Look for…

Tight groups

of activities across 2-3 swim lanesSingle flow line in & out of the groupLane participant may be limited to activities in the group

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(2) Activity Granularity – Flow Line Patterns

Generally should not flow backward to a previous milestone.Generally should not skip a Milestone.Should avoid looping back to a previous step to repeat an activity (or sub-process) later in the process—repeat/re-use the activity instead.

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(3) Activity Description – Activity Naming

Activity Name = Action + Entity[action verb] + [business object]Avoid vague action verbs such as Process and Perform [Step]Use action verbs that indicate a result/outputUse specific terms recognizable by the business users (even if they might be vague to others) and describe/define the terms in the description if necessary.

Perform Review

Approve Contract Terms

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(3) Activity Description – User Story

Capture a 2-5 sentence description for each activity.As a [participant] I need to [do something] so that I can [create business value].

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(4) Inputs/Outputs

Define with business entities from the business object modelAvoid specifying state for the entity (eg. signed contract)Avoid specifying other qualifiers that are properties of the entityCandidateJob DescriptionComp. DetailsOffer Letter

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(5) The System Lane

Define only one system lane.Contains activities performed by the BPMS or orchestrated by the BPMS to be performed by an external system.Should not contain human activities.Avoid the string of pearls pattern.

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Conclusion

IntroductionDefinition of TermsFive Guidelines1) Rule of Seven2) Activity Granularity3) Activity Description4) Inputs/Outputs5) The System LaneQ&A

Q

A

&

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