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Requirements of Consideration

The law has refused to enforce most


, or free agreements. An agreement must be bargained for if they are to be binding. An agreement is bargained for when each side is compelled to give up something of value in exchange for something else in value.

Many agreements are not legally binding because they lack consideration. For instance, a social agreements that contain an offer and an acceptance. Ex: An agreement to accompany someone to homecoming.Slide3




The legal concept of consideration


is the exchange of benefits and detriments by parties to an agreement.


is something that a party was not previously entitled to receive.


is any loss suffered.Slide5


There are three types of consideration. The first involves giving up or promising to give up something that you have the legal right to keep.

The second type involves doing something or promising to do something that you have the legal right not to do.

The final type of consideration, which is known as


, is not doing something that you have the legal right to do.Slide6

The characteristics of Consideration

The three key characteristics:

Promises must involve the concept of a bargained-for exchange

Something of value must be involved

The benefits and detriments promised must be legal.Slide7

Bargained-for exchange

The law supports agreements that have been bargained for. An agreement involves a

Bargained-for exchange

when a promise is made in return for another promise, an act, or a promise not to act. Both parties gain something when the promises arte kept and the exchange is made.Slide8

Example of bargained for exchange

A man is selling a car for $3,500, he is known as the


and receives the benefit: the right to receive the money.

Another man decides he will buy the car for that price. He is the


and has

the Legal detriment: The promise

to give up the $3,500.Slide9

Types of consideration

Money as consideration: Usually, one party will offer money in exchange for another parties promise or performance.

Property and services as consideration: Before money was accepted as a medium of exchange, it was common to use property and services as consideration. Some parties still prefer to engage in barter agreements that involve goods and services rather than money.Slide10

A promise not to sue

If one party has the right to sue another party but gives up that right in exchange for something in value. The court will generally uphold the exchange as valid consideration.

Ex: If a woman eats a fish platter for lunch at a restaurant and later has horrible stomach pains, and she was rushes to the local hospital. In the hospital she was diagnosed with food poisoning. The type of food poisoning that could have only resulted from improper storage of the fish she had eaten for lunch. The woman elected to sue the restaurant, but the restaurant offered her $5,000 if she dropped her law suit. The woman agreed. The thing of value that the woman transferred to the restaurant was her right to complete her law suit.Slide11

Charitable pledges

Charitable organizations and nonprofit institutions often depend upon contributions. This dependency has led the court to enforce charitable pledges just as if they were contracts. If a specific project is involved with a pledge, the charity must carry out its side of the deal by completing the projectSlide12

Problems with consideration

When parties disagree with the amount of money that the debtor owes the creditor, a problem has arisen over the consideration involved in the contract. The resolution of the problem depends upon whether the transaction involves a genuine dispute as to the amount of money owed.Slide13

Disputed amounts

If the parties to a contract cannot agree as to the actual amount owed, the amount is said to be in dispute.

A dispute can be settled by

accord and satisfaction

if the creditor excepts a payment that is less than the amount due as full payment.

The acceptance of the creditor of less than what has been billed to the debtor is the


. The agreed-to settlement as contained in the accord is the


. The dispute must be real, must occur in good faith, and must not

be trivial.Slide14

Undisputed amounts

If the parties have mutually agreed to set an amount of money in the contract, then the amount cannot be disputed. The debtor may have remorse over the amount that he or she has agreed to pay in the contract, but he or she would still owe that amount. This would be true even if the debtor later discovered that another party was offering the same contractual arrangement at a lesser amount.Slide15

Enforceable agreements without consideration

In most situations, a contract is invalid if it does not include consideration. However, there are some agreements in which the requirement of consideration is eliminated. This is true despite the fact that these agreements may appear to offer the necessary element of consideration.Slide16

Promises under seal


: is a mark or an impression placed on a written contract indicating that that the instrument was executed and accepted in a formal manner.Slide17

Promises enforced by promissory


Under the doctrine of



, a promise may be enforced without consideration. The word promissory means “ containing or consisting of a promise.” the word


means “ restraint on a person to prevent him or her from contradicting a previous act.” The doctrine is used to prevent injustice when a person changes his or her position significantly in reliance on another persons promise, and the promise is not fulfilled. The court will “


” the person who made the promise from claiming that there was no consideration.Slide18


Sometimes an


will give consideration to an


in exchange for a promise from the


to keep an offer open for a specified period of time. This is known as


. Under the UCC, an exception exists to the rule requiring consideration for an option. When a merchant makes a written offer stating the period of time during which an offer will remain open, consideration is not needed. The offer, which is called a

Firm offer

, or an irrevocable offer, must be signed by the


. The time permitted for acceptance cannot exceed three months.Slide19

Illusory Promises

Some contracts are illusory, meaning they appear at first glance to be contracts but further scrutiny are revealed to be hollow. Such agreements are said to involve illusory promises.Slide20

Past consideration

The act of giving or exchange of benefits and detriments must occur when a contract is made.

Past consideration

, or consideration that took place in the past or that is given for something that has already been done, is not regarded as legal by courts.Slide21

Preexisting duties

If a person is already under a legal obligation to do something, a promise to do that same thing is not consideration. These obligations are called

Preexisting duties.

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Consideration - Description

Makayla Davis Requirements of Consideration The law has refused to enforce most Gratuitous or free agreements An agreement must be bargained for if they are to be binding An agreement is bargained for when each side is compelled to give up something of value in exchange for something els ID: 571565 Download Presentation

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