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Slide1

Josef F. Steufer/Getty Images

Prosocial Relations

Module 37

Slide2

37-1: WHY DO WE BEFRIEND OR FALL IN LOVE WITH SOME PEOPLE BUT NOT OTHERS?

ProximityProximity—geographic nearness—is friendship’s most powerful predictor

Provides

opportunity for aggression or friendship, but much more often breeds the latterMere exposure effect: The phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them

Prosocial Relations

Attraction

The Psychology of Attraction

Slide3

Modern MatchmakingInternet-formed friendships and romantic relationships are on average slightly more likely to last and be satisfying.

A national U.S. survey showed that nearly a quarter of heterosexual and two-thirds of same-sex couples met online.

Speed-dating

For many people, 4 minutes is sufficient to form a feeling about a conversational partner and to register whether the partner likes them.People who fear rejection often elicit it.

Choices may be more superficial, especially given many

options.Women tend to be more choosy than men.

Prosocial Relations

Attraction

The Psychology of Attraction

Slide4

Physical Attractiveness

Affects first impressionPredicts frequency of dating and

popularity

Is influenced by cultural ideals and personal feelings Similarity Includes

s

hared attitudes, beliefs, interests, age, religion, race, education, intelligence, smoking behavior, and economic statusThe reward theory of attraction holds that we will like those whose behavior is rewarding to us, including those who are both able and willing to help us achieve our goals.

Prosocial Relations

Attraction

The Psychology of Attraction

Slide5

The answer varies by culture and over time.Some adult physical features, such as a youthful form

and symmetrical face, seem attractive everywhere.

Appealing traits enhance feelings of physical attractiveness.

WHAT DO WE MEAN BY “ATTRACTIVE”?

Slide6

37-2: HOW DOES ROMANTIC LOVE TYPICALLY CHANGE AS TIME PASSES?

Passionate LoveThe two-factor theory of emotion can help us understand

passionate love

:Emotions have two ingredients: physical arousal and cognitive appraisal.Arousal from any source can enhance an emotion, depending on how we interpret and label the arousal.

Sexual desire + a growing attachment = the passion of romantic

love Prosocial Relations

Attraction

Romantic Love

Slide7

Companionate LoveAlthough the desire and attachment of passionate love often

endure, the intensity generally fades into a steadier companionate love—a deep, affectionate attachment

Passion-facilitating

hormones (testosterone, dopamine, adrenaline ) give way to another, oxytocin, that supports feelings of trust, calmness, and bondingEquity is

an

important key to satisfying and enduring relationshipSelf-disclosure deepens intimacyA third key to enduring love is positive support

Prosocial Relations

Attraction

Romantic Love

Slide8

37-3: WHEN ARE

PEOPLE MOST—AND LEAST—LIKELY TO

HELP?

Altruism is an unselfish concern for the welfare of others.Altruism became a major concern of social psychologists after an especially vile act. On March 13, 1964, a stalker repeatedly stabbed Kitty Genovese, then raped her as she lay dying outside her Queens, New York, apartment at 3:30 a.m. Genovese’s screams for help attracted attention,

but

no one called the police until 3:50 a.m., after the attacker had already fled.

Prosocial

Relations

Altruism

Slide9

Bystander EffectPeople are most likely to help when they notice an incident,

interpret it as an emergency, and assume responsibility for helping (Darley and colleagues). When more people share responsibility for helping, there is a

diffusion of responsibility.

The bystander effect is the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.

Prosocial Relations

AltruismBystander Intervention

Slide10

The

Decision-Making Process for Bystander

Intervention

Prosocial Relations

Altruism

Bystander Intervention

Slide11

37-4: HOW DO SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY AND SOCIAL NORMS EXPLAIN HELPING BEHAVIOR?

Why do we help?

Social exchange theory

Maximizing rewards and minimizing costs (accountants call it cost-benefit analysis; philosophers call it utilitarianism; psychologists call it social exchange theory)Reciprocity norm

Expectation that people will respond favorably to each other by returning benefits for

benefit Social-responsibility norm

Expectation that people should help those who depend on them

Prosocial Relations

Altruism

The Norms for Helping

Slide12

37-5: HOW DO SOCIAL TRAPS AND MIRROR-IMAGE PERCEPTIONS FUEL SOCIAL CONFLICT?

ConflictPerceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas in which people become enmeshed in potentially destructive processes that often produce unwanted results

Among these processes are social traps and distorted perceptions

Prosocial RelationsPeacemakingElements of Conflict

Slide13

Social TrapsSituation in which conflicting parties, by each pursuing their self-interest rather than the good of the group, become caught in mutually destructive behaviorSocial traps harm our collective

well-beingSocial traps challenge us to reconcile our right to pursue our personal well-being with our responsibility for the well-being of all. Psychologists have explored ways to convince

people

to cooperate—agreed-upon regulations, better communication, and awareness of our responsibilities toward community, nation, and the whole of humanity

Prosocial Relations

Peacemaking

Elements of Conflict

Slide14

Enemy PerceptionsPsychologists have noted that those in conflict have

a curious tendency to form diabolical images of one another.Mirror-image

perceptions: Mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive. Self-fulfilling prophecy: A belief that leads to its own fulfilment. As enemies change, so do perceptions (for example, a negative American view of

Japan

during WWII later became positive).Prosocial RelationsPeacemaking

Elements of Conflict

Slide15

37-6: HOW CAN WE TRANSFORM FEELINGS OF PREJUDICE, AGGRESSION, AND CONFLICT INTO ATTITUDES THAT PROMOTE PEACE?

Research indicates that in some cases contact and cooperation can be transformational.

Contact

Most effective when contact is free of competition and equal status exists.Across a quarter-million people studied in 38 nations, friendly contact with ethnic minorities, older people, and people with disabilities has usually led to less prejudice.

Contact

is not always enough. Also important are cooperation, communication, and conciliation.

Prosocial Relations

Peacemaking

Promoting Peace

Slide16

GRIT

(Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction) is alternative

to

conflict

, to

war or surrender

.

Conciliation

When real-life conflicts become intense, a third-party mediator may

facilitate

much-needed

communication

.

Mediators can help each party to voice its viewpoint and to understand the other’s needs and goals; change

a

competitive

win-lose

orientation to

a

cooperative

win-win

one

.

Communication

Cooperative contact, not

contact

alone

,

reduces

conflict

.

A shared predicament or

superordinate goal

can have a unifying effect.

Experiments with teens in 11 countries confirm that cooperative learning can maintain or enhance student achievement.

Cooperation

Prosocial Relations

Peacemaking:

Promoting

Peace

Slide17