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Slide1

Josef F. Steufer/Getty Images

Storing and Retrieving Memories

Module 23

Slide2

23-1: WHAT IS THE CAPACITY OF LONG-TERM MEMORY? ARE OUR LONG-TERM MEMORIES PROCESSED AND STORED IN SPECIFIC LOCATIONS?

Our capacity for storing long-term memories is essentially limitless.This is contrary to the belief that we can fill more items only if we discard old ones.

Storing and Retrieving

Memories

Memory Storage

Slide3

Information is not stored in single, precise locations in the brain.Memories are brain-based, but the brain

distributes the components of a memory across a network of locations in the brain.Some of the brain cells that fired when we experienced something fire again when we recall it.

Despite the brain’s vast storage capacity, we do not store information as libraries store their books, in single, precise locations. Instead, brain networks encode, store, and retrieve the information that forms our complex memories.

Storing and Retrieving Memories

Memory Storage

Retaining Information in the Brain

Slide4

23-2: WHAT ARE THE ROLES OF THE FRONTAL LOBES AND HIPPOCAMPUS IN MEMORY PROCESSING?We have two conscious memory systems:

Semantic memory:

Explicit

memory of facts and general knowledge

Episodic memory

:

Explicit memory of personally experienced events.The hippocampus is a neural center located in the limbic system; registers and temporarily holds elements of explicit memories before moving them to other brain regions for long-term storage. Neural storage of long-term memories is called memory consolidation.

Storing and Retrieving Memories

Memory Storage

Retaining Information in the Brain

Slide5

THE HIPPOCAMPUS

Explicit memories for facts and episodes are processed in the hippocampus (orange structures) and fed to other brain regions for storage.

Explicit-Memory System: The Hippocampus

Slide6

23-3: WHAT ARE THE ROLES OF THE CEREBELLUM AND BASAL GANGLIA IN MEMORY PROCESSING?

The cerebellum plays

important role in forming and

storing implicit

memories

created by classical conditioning.

The

basal ganglia, deep brain structures involved in motor movement, facilitate formation of our procedural memories for skills.Infantile amnesia

Conscious memory of first three years is blank.

Command of language and well-developed

hippocampus needed

.

Hippocampus is one of the last brain structures to mature.

Storing and Retrieving Memories

Memory Storage

Retaining Information in the Brain

Implicit Memory System: Cerebellum and Basal Ganglia

Slide7

23-4: HOW DO EMOTIONS AFFECT OUR MEMORY PROCESSING?Excitement or stress triggers hormone production and

provokes the amygdala (two limbic system, emotion-processing clusters) to

engage memory.

Emotions often persist with or without conscious awareness.

Emotional arousal causes an outpouring of stress hormones, which lead to activity in the brain’s memory-forming areas.

Flashbulb memories

,

clear memories of emotionally significant moments or events, occur via emotion-triggered hormonal changes and rehearsal.Storing and Retrieving Memories

Memory Storage

Retaining Information in the Brain

The Amygdala, Emotions, and Memory

Slide8

Frontal lobes and hippocampus:

explicit memory formationCerebellum and basal ganglia

:

implicit memory

formation

Amygdala

:

emotion-related memory formation

Review Key Memory Structures

in the

Brain

Slide9

23-5: HOW DO CHANGES AT THE SYNAPSE LEVEL AFFECT OUR MEMORY PROCESSING?Long-term Potentiation (LTP)

Increase in a synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulationAfter LTP, brain will not erase memories

Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory

Kandel and Schwartz

(1982) observed synaptic changes during learning in the neurons of the California sea slug,

Aplysia.

Their research pinpointed changes

in sea slugs neural connections; with learning, more serotonin is released and cell efficiency is increased.

Storing and Retrieving Memories

Memory Storage

Synaptic Changes

Slide10

Aplysia

, the California sea slug, which neuroscientist Eric

Kandel

studied for 45 years, has increased our understanding of the neural basis of learning and memory.

Aplysia

Slide11

Electron microscope image (a) shows just one receptor site (gray) reaching toward a

sending neuron before long-term potentiation. Image (b) shows that, after LTP, the receptor sites have doubled

. This

means that the receiving neuron has

increased sensitivity for

detecting the

presence of the

neurotransmitter molecules that may be released by the sending neuron. (From Toni et al., 1999.)

Doubled receptor sites

Slide12

Our Two Memory Systems

Storing and Retrieving Memories

Memory Storage

Slide13

Storing and Retrieving MemoriesMemory RetrievalRetrieval Cues

23-6:

HOW DO EXTERNAL CUES, INTERNAL EMOTIONS, AND ORDER OF APPEARANCE INFLUENCE MEMORY RETRIEVAL?

Memories held in storage by web of associations

Retrieval cues serve as anchor points for pathways to memory suspended in

this web

When

you encode into memory the name of the person sitting next to you in class, you associate it with other bits of information about your surroundings, mood, seating position, and so onBest retrieval cues come from associations formed at the time a memory is encodedPriming

Activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory

Slide14

PRIMING—AWAKENING

ASSOCIATIONS

After seeing or hearing

rabbit

,

we

are later more likely to spell the spoken

word

hair/hare

as

h-a-r-e

(Bower, 1986).

Associations unconsciously

activate related associations.

This process is called priming

.

Memory

Retrieval

Retrieval

Cues

Slide15

Context-dependent memoryInvolves improved recall of specific information

when the context present at encoding and retrieval are the sameCues

and contexts specific to

a particular memory will be most

effective in

helping recall

Storing and Retrieving Memories

Memory Retrieval Retrieval Cues

Slide16

State-dependent memoryEmotions that accompany good or

bad events become retrieval cues.Mood-congruent memory: The

tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or

bad mood

.

In a bad mood, we may read someone’s look as a glare and feel even worse. IN a good mood, we may encode the same look as interest and feel even better. Passions exaggerate.

Storing and Retrieving Memories

Memory Retrieval Retrieval Cues

Slide17

Serial Position Effect

Our

tendency

to recall best the last

(

recency

effect)

and first

(primacy effect)

items in

a list

.

Storing and Retrieving Memories

Memory Retrieval

Retrieval

Cues


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