Mastering the Common Core

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A Hands-On Approach. Lucinda Evans, AIHE . Professional Development. The Common Core State Standards. An Overview. Part 1. What are the Common Core . State Standards? . The Common Core State Standards for Literacy and Mathematics (CCSS) are the culmination of an effort by the states to create the n.... ID: 688548 Download Presentation

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Mastering the Common Core




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Presentations text content in Mastering the Common Core

Slide1

Mastering the Common Core

A Hands-On ApproachLucinda Evans, AIHE Professional Development

Slide2

The Common Core State Standards

An Overview

Part 1

Slide3

What are the Common Core

State Standards? The Common Core State Standards for Literacy and Mathematics (CCSS) are the culmination of an effort by the states to create the next generation of K–12 standards in order to help ensure that all students are college and career ready in literacy no later than the end of high school.

The Standards are (1) research and evidence based, (2) aligned with college and work expectations, (3) rigorous, and (4) internationally benchmarked.

The focus is on learning expectations for students, not how students get there

Slide4

The Common Core State Standards provide a consistent, clear understanding of what students are expected to learn, so teachers and parents know what they need to do to help them.

The standards are designed to be rigorous and relevant to the real world, reflecting the knowledge and skills that our young people need for success in college and careers.

With American students fully prepared for the future, our communities will be best positioned to compete successfully in the global economy.

Slide5

What are the literacy standards for social studies/ history?

Embedded in the CCSS for grades 6-12 are literacy standards in history/ social studies.

These standards:are based on teachers using their content area expertise to help students meet the particular challenges of reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language in their content area.

are

not meant to replace content standards

but rather to supplement them. States may incorporate these standards into their standards for those subjects or adopt them as content area literacy standards.

focus on the reading, comprehension and analysis of increasingly complex primary and secondary sources

Slide6

What is the implementation timeline?

The CCSS will be phased in over five years:

2010-2012: Phase One- Awareness and Understanding; Alignment and Adoption

2011-2013: Phase Two- Build Statewide Capacity; Collaborate to Develop and Align Resources and Materials

2011-2014: Phase Three- Professional Development and Classroom Transition

2012-2015: Phase Four- Statewide Implementation through the Assessment System (Pilot in 2013-2014, Full Implementation in 2014-2015)

Slide7

How will the CCSS impact assessment?

Common Core State Assessments are currently in development.

They will most likely ask students to:read, comprehend and analyze documents

compare and contrast documents and/ or identify common thematic threads

synthesize information and apply it to a writing task

Ideally the assessments will be online and require students to download documents and complete the writing task online.

Slide8

Taking a Closer Look at the Standards

The Common Core Literacy Standards are divided into four broad categories:

ContextualizationKey Ideas and Details

Craft and Structure

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

Slide9

What are the Common Core

Content Literacy skills?

ContextualizationEstablishing time, scope and Sequence

Understanding the big picture

Establishing the values and beliefs of the time

Craft and Structure

Identifying and defining key terms

Determining the main idea

Identifying the Author’s bias or point of view

Key Ideas and Details

Assessing the reliability of the information

Evaluation of argument and reasoning

Comparing ideas within and across texts

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

Analysis of multiple sources and perspectives

Understanding multiple perspectives

Assessing different interpretations over time

Slide10

Thinking Like a Historian

Building student understanding of the past

Part 2

Slide11

Common Core

The Common Core Standards require students to:

Analyze documents

Compare and Contrast multiple documents

Interpret documents and readings

Synthesize the information into a written product

Thinking Like a Historian provides students with many of the discreet skills that are absolutely necessary to successfully navigate the assessments mandated by the Common Core Standards

Slide12

Gordon S. Wood

We Americans have such a thin and meager sense of history that we cannot get too much of it.

What we need more than anything is a deeper and fuller sense of the historical process, a sense of where we have come from and how we became what we are.

Wood, Gordon (2008).

The Purpose of the Past. New York, New York. Penguin Press.

Wood, Gordon (2008).

The Purpose of the Past. New York, New York. Penguin Press.

Slide13

Building Step by Step

The skills are divided into three major steps or tiers

Each tier serves as a foundation for those that come afterward

The tiers build from the broadest and more general to the more specific

Slide14

BUILDING A FOUNDATION

FOR LEARNING

TIER 1

: “THE BASEMENT”

BUILDING A FOUNDATION

OF THE PAST

TIER 2

: “MAIN FLOOR”

ANALOGY AND EVALUATION

OF HISTORICAL MATERIAL

TIER 3

: “THE ATTIC”

CONTEXT AND INTERPRETATION

Slide15

TIER 1

: “THE BASEMENT”BUILDING A FOUNDATION

OF THE PAST

Tier 1

Building a Foundation to Acquire Historical Knowledge

Slide16

Seeing the BIG Picture of History

Establishing time, scope, and sequence in which the events of an era take place

Establishing the location at which events happened

Associate events with contemporary actions throughout the world

TIER 1

Slide17

Determining the Main Idea

Eliminate details and information that is non-essential

Establish the crucial elements of events, documents, or other material

TIER 1

Slide18

Avoid Historical

Presentism

Establishing the values and beliefs of the time as a lens to analyze the past

Using the values of the time to analyze historical meaning

Compare and contrast the values of the past with those of the present

TIER 1

Slide19

Tier 2

Analyzing and Evaluating

those items from Tier 1

TIER 1

: “THE BASEMENT”

BUILDING A FOUNDATION

OF THE PAST

TIER 2

: MAIN FLOOR

ANALOGY AND EVALUATION

OF HISTORICAL MATERIAL

Slide20

Bias and Reliability of Sources

Determination of bias and unique point of view of historical sources

Establishing and assess the degree of reliability of historical sources

TIER 2

Slide21

Establish a Personal Connection to the Past

Seek and utilize personal or local connections to history whenever possible

Seeing history as the story of people and their voice rather than dry and disconnected events

TIER 2

Slide22

Analyzing Causation and Consequence

Studying the differences between single-causation and multi-causation of the events of the past

Assessing the degree of causation

Impact of the consequences of events and decisions of the past, including those that were intended and unintended

TIER 2

Slide23

Analyzing Change throughout the Past

Determination of different types of change that took place in the past, including political, economic, and social

Analysis of the impact of the different types of change at the time

Examine the impact of change across periods of time

TIER 2

Slide24

Tier 3: Using What Has Been Learned

TIER 1

: “THE BASEMENT”

BUILDING A FOUNDATION

OF THE PAST

TIER 2

: MAIN FLOOR

ANALOGY AND EVALUATION

OF HISTORICAL MATERIAL

TIER 3

: “THE ATTIC”

CONTEXT AND INTERPRETATION

Slide25

Utilizing Historiographical Approaches

Examining the differing interpretations of historical events that have been developed in the past

Compare and contrast the differing interpretations of historical events

Evaluating the accuracy of current and previous schools of historical interpretation to develop a personal philosophy of the past

TIER 3

Slide26

Using Counterfactual Arguments

Utilizing counterfactual arguments to deepen student understanding of specific episodes of history

Developing carefully constructed series of “what if?” questions to guide students through alternate historical outcomes

TIER 3

Slide27

Understanding History through Common Themes and Ideas

Establishment of the essential themes of history and determination of their presence

Foundations of Freedom

Creation of an American Culture

Conflict and Compromise

Political and Social Movements

America on the World Stage

Analysis of the essential themes in different periods of history and across history

TIER 3

Slide28

Common Core demands that students spend as much time in ‘the attic’ as possible

TIER 1

: “THE BASEMENT”

BUILDING A FOUNDATION

OF THE PAST

TIER 2

: MAIN FLOOR

ANALOGY AND EVALUATION

OF HISTORICAL MATERIAL

TIER 3

: “THE ATTIC”

CONTEXT AND INTERPRETATION

Slide29

Reading Like an Historian

Developing the ability to understand written information

Part 3

Slide30

What Does it Mean to Read

Like an Historian?

“True historians comprehend a subtext on the literal, inferred and critical levels. These subtexts include what the writer is saying literally but also any possible biases and unconscious assumptions the writer had about the world. Historians try to reconstruct authors’ purposes, intentions, and goals, as well as understand authors’ assumptions, world view and beliefs”.

Sam

Wineburg

Slide31

What are the keys to reading history?

Effective readers of history have a variety of comprehension strategies that they bring to reading a text. These strategies can be grouped in three categories:

Before reading

or activation of background or prior knowledge

During reading

or active engagement with the content

Continuous

or meta-cognition (thinking about thinking)

Effective readers of history are in charge of the process, monitoring how they read and adjusting to ensure success.

Slide32

What differentiates Expert readers from Novice readers of history?

The Expert

Reader

:

Seeks to

discover context

and

know contentSees any text as a construction

of a vision of the world

Sees texts

as made by persons with a view of events

Considers

textbooks less trustworthy

than other kinds of documents

The Novice

R

eader:

Seeks only to

know content

Sees text as a

description

of the world

Sees texts

as accounts of what really happened

Considers

textbooks very trustworthy

sources

Slide33

Expert Novice

Compares

texts to judge different accounts of the same event or topic

Assumes

bias

in texts

Gets interested in contradictions and ambiguities

Checks

sources

of documents

Acknowledges

uncertainty and complexity

Learns the “right answer”

Assumes

neutrality, objectivity

in texts

Resolves or ignores contradictions and ambiguities

Reads the

documents

only

Communicates

“the truth”

, sounding as certain as possible

Slide34

Again . . .

Expert Novice

Asks what the text

does

(purpose)

Understands the

subtexts

of the writer’s languageConsiders word choice

(connotation and denotation) and

tone

Reads slowly,

simulating a social exchange between two readers,

“actual” and ‘mock”

Asks what the text

says

(facts)

Understands the

literal meaning

of the writer’s language

Ignores word choice

and

tone

Reads to

gather lots of information

Slide35

What factors affect the

readability of history texts?

Lack of prior knowledge

Unfamiliar text structure or schema

Difficulty identifying important material from less important material

Academic vocabulary and abstract concepts (“isms”)

Level of analysis and synthesis

Role of visuals, such as maps, graphs and charts, as sources of information

Slide36

Common Core Learning Framework

Level of Examination: Interpretation and Contextualization

1. Prior knowledge:

supports students in making connections to the text or the content.

creates a foundation for new facts, ideas and concepts.

activates student interest and curiosity, and creates a purpose for learning

.

Slide37

Common Core Learning Framework

Level of Examination: Analysis of Craft and Structure

2. Text

Structure or

Schema: Narrative

and expository text differ in their organizational pattern, language and purpose

Narrative

T

ext

T

ypically follows one structure or story.

I

ncludes such elements as theme, plot, conflict, resolution, characters and setting

.

Expository

text

E

xplains

something and reflects a variety of structures or organizational

patterns;

Includes definition

, cause-effect, sequence, categorization, comparison/contrast, enumeration, process, problem-solution, and description.

Slide38

Common Core Learning Framework

Level of Examination:Analysis, Determining the Main Idea

3. Differentiating Information

Effective readers discern which concepts to focus on and which information to retain. They interact with the text and internalize information.

Note-taking provides a structure for recording and reorganizing information and ideas.

The structure supports retention and recall by making information accessible and providing cues to trigger memory.

Slide39

Note-Taking

Note-taking supports students in:

determining which information is important.

making connections between main ideas and details even when the author has not made the connections explicit.

extending and transferring knowledge after reading which results in deeper construction of meaning

.

Slide40

Common Core Learning Framework

Level of Examination:

Analysis, Identifying and Determining

the Key Terms

4. Academic Vocabulary

is the vocabulary critical to understanding concepts in history.

is an essential component of building prior or background knowledge.

The more terms a student knows about a given topic, the easier it is to understand and learn new information.

Slide41

Social Studies Vocabulary

There are 4 categories of vocabulary in history:Terms associated with instructional or directional tools (“north”, “below”).

Concrete terms (“Stamp Act”)Functional terms (“sequencing”)

Conceptual terms (“democracy”, “taxation”)

Slide42

Common Core Learning Framework

Level of Examination: Compare and Contrast

Analysis of Multiple Sources and Perspectives

5. Level of Analysis and Synthesis

Historians don’t settle for one perspective on an historical issue; they piece together many, sometimes competing, versions of events to construct an accurate interpretation.

Multiple perspectives are usual and have to be tested against evidence, and accounted for in judgments and conclusions.

Slide43

Historical Thinking and Writing

The writing of history is based on a critical analysis, evaluation, and selection of authentic source materials and composition of these materials into a narrative subject to scholarly methods of criticism.

The result is a body of historical literature on any event or individual in history that reflects the process of historical thinking.

Slide44

Common Core Learning Framework

Level of Examination: Compare and Contrast

Comparing Ideas Within and Across Texts

6. Analyzing Visuals

Visual literacy is the ability to interpret information presented in the form of an image.

Visual literacy is based on the idea that pictures can be “read”.

Students view an image and construct an interpretation.

Slide45

Analyzing Visuals-cont’d

Level 1 is basic identification of the subject or elements in a graphic, photograph, or work of art.

Level 2 is understanding what we see and comprehending visual relationships.

Level 3 is placing the image in the broader context of the historical period.

Level 4 is the synthesis: “What narrative does it tell?”

Slide46

What is the Role of Questioning?

Expert readers of history ask questions when they read.Questioning improves comprehension in four ways:

by fostering interaction with the textby creating motivation to read

by clarifying information in the text

by inferring beyond the literal meaning

Questioning the text helps students assume responsibility for their learning.

Slide47

What are the strategies for

reading like an historian?

The skills for reading like an historian form one of the pillars of the Common Core Learning Framework.

These skills support student in becoming expert readers of history.

What strategies can history teachers use to help their students make meaning of history texts?

Slide48

That is a question for our next session

Interrogating the Text…

Let’s Take a Break


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