“Because things are the way they are, things will not stay the way they are. ” PowerPoint Presentation, PPT - DocSlides

“Because things are the way they are, things will not stay the way they are. ” PowerPoint Presentation, PPT - DocSlides

2018-11-04 9K 9 0 0


Bertolt Brecht. E. Napp. Continuity and Change Over Time. The Continuity and Change Over Time (CCOT) essay question tests the student’s ability to trace a broad trend or development over a long period of time. ID: 713525

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“Because things are the way they are, things will not stay the way they are. ”

Bertolt Brecht

E. Napp


Continuity and Change Over TimeThe Continuity and Change Over Time (CCOT) essay question tests the student’s ability to trace a broad trend or development over a long period of timeThe CCOT lends itself to a topical approachTopics may include cultural interchange, global trade, the movement and migration of peoples, the role of minorities in a given society, the status of women, environmental issues, biological developments, changes in technology, artistic and cultural attitudes, and scientific innovations

E. Napp


General Tips For Writing A CCOTStudents should take 40 minutes to complete the CCOT essayStudents should spend 5 of the 40 minutes reading the question, reflecting on the question, and organizing thoughts concerning the essayThe CCOT will request that students analyze the evolution of a trend or phenomenon over a long period of time

Students will be asked to focus on a particular nation or geographical region and may be given a choice regarding which nation or region must be included in the essay

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The requirements for the CCOT are more straightforward than those for the DBQ. However, students must concentrate on showing what changed and how it changed as well as what remained the same.E. Napp


Thoughts To Consider Before WritingWhat were things like at the beginning of the assigned period?What changed?How and why did it change?What were things like at the end of the assigned period?

What differences did those changes make?What remained the same?

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Definition: Change To make different in some particular ~Merriam-Webster dictionary

Definition: Continuity Uninterrupted connection, succession, or union

~Merriam-Webster dictionary

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SO, Wait A MinuteIt’s not just about change but about what remained the sameDon’t forget the continuity part of the Continuity and Change Over Time Essay

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Let’s Practice!E. Napp


From The 2005 World History AP Examination (Courtesy Of College Entrance Examination Board):Analyze the social and economic transformations that occurred in the Atlantic world as a result of new contacts among Western Europe, Africa, and the Americas from 1492 to 1750.

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Read The Directions CarefullyAnalyze social and economic transformationsBut also

analyze continuitiesAs a result of new contacts among Western Europe, Africa, and the AmericasFrom

1492 to 1750

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Facts About 1492The Spanish, distracted by the Reconquista, were not as quick as the Portuguese to start exploringFalling behind meant that, if the Spanish wanted their own sea route to Asia, they would have to try something different

The result was the famous voyage of the Italian captain Christopher Columbus in 1492, sponsored by King Ferdinand and Queen IsabellaWhat Columbus proposed was to sail west to reach China and India

What made his proposal striking was his belief that the world was small enough that an expedition would be able to sail from Spain to Asia without getting lost or running out of food and water

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Columbus set sail in August 1492, and his ships reached the islands of the Caribbean on October 12Columbus was convinced that he had found the Indies, but the Spanish and Portuguese realized quickly that what he had found were lands completely unknown to themThe two countries turned to the pope to determine who would be allowed to claim which parts of the New WorldIn lines of demarcation agreed to in 1494 and 1529, the pope gave jurisdiction over most of South America and all of North America to the Spanish

The Portuguese received Brazil

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So, the year 1492 was a significant turning point in world history. It brought the largely isolated Americas into permanent contact with Europe and AfricaIt led to the destruction of autonomous and independent civilizations and societies in the AmericasIt led to the encomienda system of Indian slavery and the deaths of large numbers of Native American Indians due to conquest and disease

It led to the importation of African slaves to replace a dying Native American Indian populationIt led to the enrichment of Western European nations as silver and cash crops like sugar and cotton benefitted Europeans through their mercantilist practices

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And after 1750, the Industrial Revolution will begin in England and spread to Western Europe and the AmericasTherefore, this CCOT essay’s time period is from the arrival of Columbus in the Americas until just before the Industrial Revolution begins

It is an essay about the conquest and colonization of the Americas, primarily by Spain and Portugal, and the tragedy of the Atlantic Slave Trade and Triangular Trade as well as mercantilismIt is an essay about the consequences of the Columbian Exchange and the intensification of global trade

It is a time period long before the independence movements of the 1800s

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So, Consider the Colonial Social Class Hierarchy When WritingPeninsularesCreoles


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Consider the Columbian ExchangeE. Napp


Consider the Transatlantic Slave TradeE. Napp


Consider MercantilismE. Napp


Consider the Impact of DiseaseE. Napp


Consider Triangular TradeE. Napp


Consider Religious ConversionE. Napp


Yes, These Are Significant Changes But There Are ContinuitiesCultures do not simply cease to exist because of conquest and forced conversionCultural syncretism can and does occur

Definition: Syncretism the fusion of two or more originally different inflectional forms ~Merriam-Webster Dictionary

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Consider Religious SyncretismE. Napp


But Do Not Consider Events After 1750

This time period does not include the Scramble for Africa, the Berlin Conference, Industrialization, and the New ImperialismTherefore, particularly regarding Africa, remember that African merchants participated in the Atlantic Slave Trade in exchange for European goods

Dates are important and this time period from 1492 until 1750 is the time of the conquest and colonization of the Americas, the Transatlantic Slave Trade, the Age of Mercantilism, and the beginning of colonial aspirations of several European nations

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Before Writing, Let’s Review The Scoring GuideBasic Core (For a possible total of 7 points) -Acceptable Thesis (1 point) -Deals with all parts of the question, though not necessarily evenly or completely (2 points – partial credit can be given)

-Backs up thesis with appropriate historical evidence (2 points – partial credit can be given) - Uses historical context to illustrate continuity and change over time (1 point)

-Analyzes the process of change and continuity (1 point)

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The Expanded Core for CCOTA score of 7 must be earned before a student can gain expanded-core points (Total of 2 points) Examples of Expanded Core: -Begins with an explicit, analytical, and comprehensive thesis

-Deals with all aspects of the question -Gives ample historical evidence to back up thesis -Creatively links topic to relevant ideas, trends, and events

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Key IngredientsThesisAddressing all parts of the questionHistorical evidence to support thesisUsing historical context to illustrate continuity and change over time

Analyzing the process of continuity and changeAnd for expanded core points: Analytical, Comprehensive, Ample Evidence, Creative

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Take A Moment To Organize Your Thoughts And Then Begin Writing!E. Napp


How Many Facts Can Be Recalled?Facts will provide the evidence needed to support the thesisSo, ultimately, it is important to recall as many facts as possible that will support the thesis

It is also important to recall facts for all regions listed in the question: Western Europe, Africa, and the AmericasPoints countChoose to win

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Sample Thesis Paragraph The year 1492 was a significant turning point in the Atlantic World and world history. The unexpected arrival of Christopher Columbus in the Americas eventually led to profound social and economic transformations that greatly altered societies in Western Europe, Africa, and the Americas. As a result of new contacts in the Atlantic World, some societies benefitted economically and socially while others were greatly weakened, damaged, or even destroyed. Yet in the midst of these significant changes lingered aspects of earlier cultural realities. While it was predominantly a period of great change, certain realities from earlier days remained.

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Facts MatterTo write a Continuity and Change Over Time essay, facts are criticalUnlike the DBQ, the only information the student has to answer the question is the information the student has rememberedAnd the best way to remember information is to practice and interact with it regularly

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is an art won by training and habituation. We do not act rightly because we have virtue or excellence, but we rather have those because we have acted rightly. We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act but a habit.”


E. Napp

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