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GLUTAMATE: GLUTAMATE & While ingredient preparation and seasoning to enhanceumami has been part of our food culture for millennia, theAt the beginning of the twentieth century Profes ID: 96335 Download Pdf

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GLUTAMATE: GLUTAMATE & FREE GLUTAMATE (mg/100g)AMATE:KOMBU SEAWEEDPARMIGIANO REGGIANONORI SEAWEEDEMMENTAL CHEESETOMATOGREEN ASPARAGUSCRAB±±POTATO While ingredient preparation and seasoning to enhanceumami has been part of our food culture for millennia, theAt the beginning of the twentieth century Professor KikunaeIkeda, working at the Tokyo Imperial University, observedthat there was a taste common to many savory foods whichThe discovery of the link between glutamate and umamisparked a search for further sources of the delicious taste.Research into umami taste continues today. Almost 100years after Ikeda's discovery, umami taste receptors were Umami is a basic taste, our fifth with sweet, sour, saltyand bitter. It is the taste that signals savoriness - Glutamic acid is one of the 20 amino acids which are buildingblocks for all of the proteins in the body. Because it is made AMATE GLUTAMIC ACID Free glutamate occurs at highlevels in many foods which weDried kombu, a traditionalcomponent of Japanese cuisine, THE TRADITION OF UMAMISEASONING 1 2 3 4 5 6 Garum, a fermented fish sauce, was an essential and valuablecondiment in ancient Rome. Fish sauces are stapleorcester sauce is related, a ferment of anchovies, sugar,spices and vinegar. The soy sauce associated with ChineseHaving identified the source of umami taste as glutamicacid, Professor Ikeda set out to make a seasoning whichMonosodium glutamate, MSG, is now used in cooking andfood production the world over. It is the cleanest, purest CARBOHYDRATE SOURCE: EXTRACTION OF SUGARS:FERMENTATION: SUGAR ISGLUTAMATE SEPARATION AND CRYSTALLIZATION DRYING PACKED FOR USE INFOOD PREPARATION APPROVED THEWORLD OVERSince its discovery in 1908,monosodium glutamate hasood& Drug Administration, As it is one of our basic tastes, it is not surprising thatincreasing umami in food is part of cooking culture all UMAMI - ABASIC TASTE of the five basic tastes. For example, when the umamiacids. Together these findings suggest that the glutamate BASIC TASTE INDICATES: TASTE STIMULUS DETECTIONLEVEL % SweetSourSaltBitter Energy sourceOrganic acids; notyet ripe or spoilageMinerals essentialfor fluid balanceHarmful/toxins Sucrose(vinegar)Sodium chloride(salt)Quinine UMAMI Glutamate/MSG 0.03 Protein, aminoacids Our sense of taste has evolved to detect key componentsin food which are important for healthy development Basic tastes are universal and cannot be created bya combination of other tastes. Taste Taste Glutamate is found inabundance in our diet. ItBOUND glutamate refers tothe amino acid when it is partof protein.FREE glutamate refers to theglutamate which occursOnly free glutamate can bedetected by the umamiThe body makes nodistinction between free PERCEPTIONOF UMAMIASTE STOMACH VAGUS TASTE PERCEPTIONOF PROTEINRICH FOOD FOOD GLUTAMATE 1 2 3 4 5 Our bodies contain about10g of free glutamate 1 BRAIN 2.3g2 MUSCLES 6g3 LIVER 0.7g4 KIDNEYS 0.7g5 BLOOD 0.04g The human body synthesizes almost 50g of glutamate eachThe average person consumes between 10 and 20 grams ofglutamate from their diet each day. This glutamate comesThe body does not distinguish between the glutamateoccurring naturally in food and the glutamate added as The way in which we hunger for the tastes we need isdemonstrated by nutrition studies among infants. NewbornHuman breast milk, the sole source of nutrition for mostchildren in their early months, is very rich in free glutamate. Glutamate is an important amino acid present in virtuallyevery protein in the body. It plays a vital role in the HUMANBREASTMILK COWÕSMILK 10 0 20 30 mg/100ml 18.7mg 1.0mg 5 15 25 ENHANCING UMAMI TASTE 150 200 250 300 350 50 100 FRESH AFTERDRYING AFTER12 MONTHS FULLY FREE GLUTAMATE (mg/100g) 15 20 25 5 10 CHICKENBOUILLON KOMBUDASHI FREE GLUTAMATE (mg/100g) 50 100 150 200 GREENTOMATO RIPETOMATO RIPENING FREE GLUTAMATE (mg/100g) TOMATO CHEDDAR CHEESE IBERIAN HAM STOCK 50 100 150 200 FREE GLUTAMATE (mg/100g) START 2 4 6 8 MONTHS MATURATION CURING ENHANCING MATURATION: ADDING GLUTAMATE OR GLUTAMATE-RICH Throughout the ages, and all over the world, people havesought out foods which are rich in umami. Selecting food ENHANCING UMAMI TASTE GLUTAMATE INOSINATE KOMBU KATSUOBUSHI ONION, CARROTAND CELERY BEEF CHINESE CABBAGEAND LEEK CHICKEN + + + JAPANESE STOCK WESTERN CASSEROLE CHINESE SOUP THE SECRETOF DELICIOUS TO REDUCE SALT -TO REDUCE FAT CONTENT -We don't just eat to live, we get pleasure from eating. TheTO REGULATE APPETITE ?Today there is significant interest in what makes us feel Combining ingredients richin free glutamate with 1. Glutamate is thepurest taste of umami, We consume 3. Monosodium 4. The body treats 5. Glutamate is 7. Replacing table salt 6. Increasing the 8. Only a small amount 9. The extensive bodyof research which exists 10. Numerous well-conducted scientific AMATE - MSG

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