Monosodium Glutamate

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& Obesity. Julia Humphrey. Central Washington University. Objectives. Understand . the difference between natural and manufactured glutamate . Acknowledge the potential relationship between MSG . ID: 296596 Download Presentation

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Monosodium Glutamate




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Presentations text content in Monosodium Glutamate

Slide1

Monosodium Glutamate & Obesity

Julia Humphrey

Central Washington University

Slide2

Objectives

Understand

the difference between natural and manufactured glutamate

Acknowledge the potential relationship between MSG

&

appetite

Learn the

e

ffects of MSG during pregnancy & in

offspring

Know how much MSG is consumed & where it is hidden

Slide3

What is Monosodium Glutamate (MSG)

Favor enhancer/food additive largely used in the food industry Responsible for umami/savory tasteWhen detected by taste buds, it signals the protein presence in the dietThought to mainly be in Asian cuisineHidden in many processed foodsUsed in place of sodium

Slide4

Natural vs. Processed Glutamate

MSG is the manufactured salt of glutamic acidGlutamate is the sodium salt of glutamic acidKey to the savory umami tasteGlutamate in natureL-glutamic acidExists as part of proteins Broken down as a part of protein digestionNatural constituent to fermented foodsMSGD-glutamic acidRefined, can be readily absorbed into circulationNot bound to proteins, levels spike upon consumptionPossibility of “toxicity” = MSG sensitivity

Slide5

MSG & Obesity History

1960s Debons et al.Systemically administered MSG in mice found a pattern of obesity & hypothalamic damageThis lead to MSG admin. as the most widely used model to induce obesity in ratsInduces a lesion of arcuate nucleus in hypothalamus

Slide6

MSG & Obesity

Experimental studies in ratsThe arcuate nucleus proposed as an important site of leptin actionLeptin produced by adipose cells Essential in maintenance of appetite, energy homeostasis, & body weightMSG administered subcutaneously in newborns Lesion of the hypothalamic nucleusLeptin action reduced likely as a result of lack of leptin receptors in arcuate nucleus

Slide7

Obesity, voracity, and short stature: the impact of glutamate on the regulation of appetiteHermanussen et al. 2006

Purpose

Effects of oral administration of MSG in pregnant rats and offspring

Subjects/Methods

32 pregnant rats, day 14 of pregnancy divided into 4 groups

Group 1 (n=8): no extra MSG

Group 2 (n=8): 2.5 g MSG per day

Group 3 (n=8): 5.0 g MSG per day

Group 4 (n=8): no extra MSG during pregnancy

offspring injected with 4mg/g MSG

Offspring

killed half at day 30 and rest at day 90

Slide8

Results

Maternal feeding with 5 g/d resulted in severe birth weight reduction (p < 0.01)Leptin levels reduced in MSG-fed groups (p < 0.05)MSG-fed animals contained more body fat at day 30 and 90 than controls (p < 0.05) Impaired glucose toleranceInsulin resistance

Obesity, voracity, and short stature: the impact of glutamate on the regulation of appetite

Hermanussen

et al. 2006

2.5 and 5 g/day MSG consumption showed marked voracity

Appetite

Slide9

Monosodium glutamate versus diet induced obesity in pregnant rats and their offspringAfifi and Abbas 2011

Purpose

Compare oral administration of large doses of MSG with high calorie

diet in

pregnant rats & offspring

Subjects/Methods

90 female rats randomly divided into 3 groups

Group 1 (n=30): normal chow 4.5% fat

Group 2 (n=30): normal chow + 100 g/kg MSG

Group 3 (n=30): high fat chow 31% fat

Slide10

Subjects/MethodsFemale rats allowed to mate and further divided into groupsC10 (n=10): control preg sacrificed on 10th dayMSG10 (n=10): MSG treated preg sacrificed on 10th dayHC10 (n=10): high calorie preg sacrificed 10th dayC20 (n=10): control preg sacrificed on 20th dayMSG20 (n=10): MSG treated preg sacrificed 20th dayHC20 (n=10): high calorie preg sacrificed 20th dayOffspring of female ratsCO (n=10): control preg offspring sacrificed 10th dayMSGO (n=10): MSG preg offspring sacrificed 10th day HC (n=10): high calorie preg offspring sacrificed 10th day

Monosodium glutamate versus diet induced obesity in pregnant rats and their offspring

Afifi

and Abbas 2011

Slide11

C10C20HC10HC20MSG10MSG20Body weight (g)236.4 ± 6.5 255.6 ± 7.4301.6 ± 5.9309.6 ± 8.0237.4 ± 6.0245.4 ± 5.3Abdominal fat (g)13.6 ± 0.0513.6 ± 0.0444.6 ± 0.4945.0 ± 0.5657.6 ± 0.3958.0 ± 0.5Blood glucose (mg/dl)84.2 ± 1.2 79.2 ± 1.0118.2 ± 3.2122.6 ± 2.9120.0 ± 2.2125.0 ± 2.5TAG (mg/dl)147.4 ± 13.0163.7 ± 15.0210.6 ± 4.0221.4 ± 5.0200.3 ± 5.0223.3 ± 3.0TC (mg/dl)85.2 ± 3.086.5 ± 2.0102.7 ± 2.0107.5 ± 3.0103.2 ± 1.0108.6 ± 2.0Number of offspring4.5 ± 0.64.7 ± 1.03.3 ± 0.53.3 ± 0.52.0 ± 0.81.8 ± 1.0

Monosodium glutamate versus diet induced obesity in pregnant rats and their offspring

Afifi

and Abbas 2011

Slide12

MSG Consumption

FDA

Considers MSG as a food additive

“generally

recognized as safe

Not required to list amount of MSG in Nutrition Facts panel

Large variation in MSG consumption

UK (1991): 580 mg/d general

4.68 g/d in extreme users

China (2010): 3.8 g/d

Thailand (2012): 4.0 g/d

Japan & Korea (1990’s): 1.2-1.7 g/d

Speculated intake is up to 10

g/d

Slide13

Consumption of MSG in relation to incidence of overweight in chinese adults: China Health and Nutrition SurveyHe et al. 2011

Subjects

Longitudinal open-cohort, ongoing, nationwide survey 1991-2006

10,095

Chinese men and women

18-65

yr

Methods

MSG consumption

d

ietary data both in the household & individual

All food purchases, home production, and processed snack foods were weighed and recorded

24-hour recall for 3 consecutive days

MSG intake for each household member estimated based on the proportion of each individual’s food consumption

MSG intake separated into quintiles

Chi square test

Slide14

ResultsMean cumulative MSG intake 1.8 g/dMSG positively associated with BMI in dose-response manner (p < 0.01)Highest MSG quintile 33% more likely to be overweightHigher BMI, income, lower physical activityPilot StudyExamine association between MSG and serum leptinMSG intake positively related to serum leptin concentrationsSerum leptin concentration increased by 0.45 ng/mL with every 1-g increase in MSG intake

Consumption of MSG in relation to incidence of overweight in

chinese

adults: China Health and Nutrition Survey

He et al. 2011

Slide15

Limitations to Studies

Majority on pregnancy & neonatal outcome is in rodentsNot ethical to perform on humansMSG dose is very large compared to actual consumption in humans

Slide16

Is MSG Safe During Pregnancy?

Animal studies Result of maternal MSG consumptionLow birth weight in offspringIncreased insulin resistance in offspringLeptin levels reduced in offspringLeptin resistance in pregnant ratIncreased abdominal fat in pregnant ratPlacental barrier Controls the passage of glutamate from maternal plasma to fetus, metabolizing it before it reaches the fetal circulationMSG-sensitivityHeadaches, nausea, numbness, weakness when consuming MSG containing foodsWant to consume fresh unprocessed as much as possible during pregnancyConsult doctor

Slide17

“Hidden” MSG

Not labeled as MSGHydrolyzed (anything), glutamate, glutamic acid, yeast extract, soy sauce, soy protein, gelatin, flavors, flavoring, bouillon, broth, seasonings, etcFound in common food itemsProcessed cheese, salad dressings, meat & vegetable stocks/broth, soups, vegetable dips, condiments, chips, pasta sauceFast food: KFCIncrease in MSG productionIncrease in processed foods = increased consumption200 tons per year in 1969800 tons per year in 2001Possible that exposure in utero could be a contributing factor to increasing obesity rates

Slide18

Conclusion

Obesity is a multifactorial diseaseRelated to diet, physical activity, genetics, environmentLike sugar and fat consumption MSG may simply be one factor in the mixWould like to see national study in U.SDifficult since NHANES does not provide MSG info

Slide19

Resources

Afifi

MM, Abbas AM. Monosodium glutamate versus diet induced obesity in pregnant rats and their offspring

.

Acta

Physiologica

Hungarica

2011;98;2:177-188

Collison

K,

Makhoul

N,

Zaidi

M,

Inglis

A, Andres B,

Ubungen

R,

Shoukri

M, Al-

Mohanna

A. Interactive effects of neonatal exposure to monosodium glutamate and aspartame on glucose homeostasis.

Nutrition & Metabolism

2012;5;58:1-13

Diemen

V,

Trindade

M. Effect of the oral administration of monosodium glutamate during pregnancy and breast-feeding in the offspring of pregnant

Wistar

rats.

Acta

Cirurgica

Brasileria

2010;25;1:37-42

Friedler

B, Grimm V. Prenatal monosodium glutamate (MSG) treatment given through the mother’s diet causes behavioral deficits in rat offspring

. International Journal of Neuroscience

1984;23:117-126

He

K, Du S,

Xun

P, Sharma S, Wang H,

Zhai

F,

Popkin

B. Consumption of monosodium glutamate in relation to incidence of overweight in Chinese adults: China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS).

American Journal of Clinical Nutritio

n

2011;93:1328-36

Hermanussen

M, Garcia AP, Voigt M, Salazar V,

Tresguerres

JAF. Obesity, voracity, and short stature: the impact of glutamate on the regulation of appetite.

European Journal of Clinical Nutritio

n 2006;60:25-31

Insawang

T,

Selmi

C,

Cha’on

U,

Pethlert

S,

Yongvanit

P,

Areejitanusorn

P,

Boonsiri

P,

Khampitak

T,

Tangrassmeeprasert

R,

Pinitsoontorn

C,

Prasongwattana

V, Gershwin M, Hammock B. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) intake is associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a rural Thai population

. Nutrition & Metabolism

2012;9;50:1-6

Yu T, Zhao Y, Shi W, Ma R, Yu L. Effects of maternal oral administration of monosodium glutamate at a late stage of pregnancy on developing mouse fetal brain

. Brain Research

1997:195-206

MSG Truth website

http://

www.msgtruth.org/avoid.htm

. Accessed July 12, 2013

Names

of ingredients that contain processed free glutamic acid (

MSG)

http://www.truthinlabeling.org/hiddensources.html

. Accessed July 12, 2013

Glutamic Acid - It Is Not MSG or Monosodium

Glutamate

http://

www.edenfoods.com/articles/view.php?articles_id=207

. Accessed July 12, 2013

Slide20

What are your thoughts? Questions?

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