The Dairy Industry
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The Dairy Industry

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The Dairy Industry




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Slide1

The Dairy Industry

Part 1

Slide2

Objectives

Define terms used to describe dairy animals, and identify the parts of a dairy animal.

Compare and contrast the major breeds of dairy cattle.

Recognize the advantages and disadvantages of dairy production.

Slide3

Proper terms and the parts of a dairy animal

Knowing basic dairy cattle terminology is important.

A. The following are common names and terms used in describing dairy cattle.

1. Cattle are

bovines

, which are members of the genus

Bos

.

2. A mature male is a

bull

.

3. A mature female is a

cow

.

4. A young male is a bull.

5. A young female is a

heifer

.

6. A castrated male is a

steer

.

7. A newborn is a

calf

.

8. A group of cattle is a

herd

.

Slide4

Proper terms and the parts of a dairy animal

B. Dairy cattle have many external parts that we need to identify to judge them and to describe any problems the animals may have.

Slide5

Proper terms and the parts of a dairy animal

C. Since dairy cattle are used mainly for milk production, the reproductive system and mammary system comprise the most important internal parts.

1. The

reproductive system

is the system that reproduces cattle by natural, in vitro, or various artificial means of insemination.

2. The

mammary system

is the system that produces milk after parturition.

Slide6

Proper terms and the parts of a dairy animal

Slide7

What are the major dairy cattle breeds?

Seven major breeds of dairy cattle are used for milking. Each breed has advantages and disadvantages.A. Holstein cattle are the most popular breed of dairy cattle. This breed makes up more than 90 percent of the dairy cattle in the United States. The name Holstein is shortened from Holstein-Friesian. The breed came from The Netherlands in the early 1600s. The animals are black and white and very large.

Slide8

What are the major dairy cattle breeds?

The cows can weigh up to 1,500 pounds, and the bulls up to 2,200 pounds.

The biggest advantage of Holsteins is that, in comparison to other breeds, they produce the largest average amount of milk per cow.

The disadvantage is that although they produce more milk, it is lower in butterfat and protein.

Butterfat

is the fat content of the milk.

Slide9

What are the major dairy cattle breeds?

B. Red & White Holstein cattle evolved from black-and-white Holsteins. Other than the color difference, all characteristics of the Red & White Holstein and the Holstein are very similar. The animals are large and have high milk production but with lower butterfat and lower protein than other breeds.

Slide10

What are the major dairy cattle breeds?

C. Ayrshire cattle originated in Scotland and were ntroduced to North America in the early 1800s. The colors are light to dark cherry red, brown, and white in any combination. There is also a polled strain of Ayrshire. The animals of this breed are most widely known for having strong feet and legs, good grazing ability, and strong, well-attached udders.

Slide11

What are the major dairy cattle breeds?

D. Brown Swiss dairy cattle originated in the Alps of Switzerland and were introduced to North America in 1869. In comparison to Holsteins, Brown Swiss cattle have a higher fat and protein ratio and a calmer disposition. The Brown Swiss is solid brown, varying greatly from very light to dark. Both the nose and the tongue are black, and the muzzle has a light-colored band around it.

Slide12

What are the major dairy cattle breeds?

E. Guernsey dairy cattle originated on the island of Guernsey and were brought to North America in 1831. Their color is mostly fawn, with clearly defined white markings. Guernsey cattle usually have smaller calves than other breeds. They are most commonly known for their milk color, which is more golden than that of other breeds. The popularity of Guernseys has declined, although they are small, quiet cattle that are very easy to work with.

Slide13

What are the major dairy cattle breeds?

F. Jersey cattle originated on the island of Jersey and were brought to North America in 1850. They vary greatly in color and color patterns, which may be fawn, near white, or grayish and may or may not include white markings.The breed is especially known for its udder qualities: well shaped with strong attachments.Although the amount of milk is lower in Jersey cattle than other breeds, the butterfat and protein content is the highest.The popularity of this small breed has increased in the last few years.

Slide14

What are the major dairy cattle breeds?

G. The Milking Shorthorn originated in England and can be any combination of red and white, just red, or just white. The breed is very adaptable to a variety of situations and is commonly used for beef production as well as dairy. The breed is fairly new compared with other breeds, since it was just designated as a dairy breed in 1968.

Slide15

What are the advantages and disadvantages of dairy production?

Dairy production has several advantages and disadvantages.

A. The advantages of raising dairy cattle are:

1. The raising of dairy cattle has proven to be a stable agricultural enterprise for many years.

2. Dairy production leads to a reasonable profit and allows for long-term financial growth.

3. Dairy producers take great pride and satisfaction in ownership and production of milk and milk products.

Slide16

What are the advantages and disadvantages of dairy production?

4. Dairy animals react and bond to kindness.

5. The dairy industry provides wholesome milk and other dairy foods and products to consumers.

6. The dairy industry also contributes to the beef supply.

Slide17

What are the advantages and disadvantages of dairy production?

B. The disadvantages of raising dairy cattle are:

1. Cows must be milked twice a day.

2. A huge capital investment is needed.

3. Dairy cattle cannot get an adequate supply of nutrients from roughages alone.

Their rations must include concentrates.

Concentrates

are feeds, such as grains or protein supplements, that allow the diet to be high-energy based.

4. Lactation requires large amounts of nutrients.

Slide18

Review

What are the proper terms used in describing dairy cattle, and what are the parts of a dairy animal?

What are the major dairy cattle breeds?

What are the advantages and disadvantages of dairy production?

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