The Secret of the German Language
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The Secret of the German Language

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The Secret of the German Language




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Presentation on theme: "The Secret of the German Language"— Presentation transcript:

Slide1

The Secret of the German Language

Lesson 2:

Can you handle the truth?

This is going to get pretty intense today.

Maybe we ought to hold hands and sing

Kum-ba-ya first.

But how do you say Kum-ba-ya in German?

Okay. Back to business.

Slide2

The Secret of the German Language

We had written a chart and looked at the first row called “nominative” (which is basically the subject of the sentence).

Today we’ll expand that and even venture carefully into the next row.

We might even pick up a few more tricks . . .

If I’m in the mood.

Slide3

The Secret of the German Language

There are several other words that function like

der

,

die

and

das

.

I’m going to call these “

der

words.”

Write these down in your notes under the heading “

der

words.”

Slide4

The Secret of the German Language

Dies- (this/these)

Jed- (each/every)

Welch- (which)

Solch- (such/such a)

Manch- (many/many a/some/several)

Jen- (that/that one)

Slide5

R

E

S

E

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

Nominative

(Subject)

So if you have a sentence like:

De

r

Mann ist hier

You can use these other der words as long as the ending is still –r.

Slide6

R

E

S

E

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

Nominative

(Subject)

Diese

r

Mann ist hier.

Jede

r

Mann ist hier.

Welche

r

Mann ist hier?

Solche

r

Mann ist hier.

Manche

r

Mann ist hier.

Jene

r

Mann ist hier.

Slide7

R

E

S

E

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

Nominative

(Subject)

So how would you say:

These children are nice.

Slide8

R

E

S

E

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

Nominative

(Subject)

Did you get:

Dies

e

Kinder sind nett.

Slide9

R

E

S

E

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

Nominative

(Subject)

How would you say:

Which woman is tall?

Slide10

R

E

S

E

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

Nominative

(Subject)

Did you get:

Welch

e

Frau ist groß.

Slide11

R

E

S

E

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

Nominative

(Subject)

What about this one?

This school is cool.

Slide12

R

E

S

E

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

Nominative

(Subject)

Did you get:

Dies

e

Schule ist cool.

Slide13

R

E

S

E

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

Nominative

(Subject)

How about:

Every boy is awesome.

Slide14

R

E

S

E

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

Nominative

(Subject)

Did you get:

Jede

r

Junge ist toll.

Slide15

R

E

S

E

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

Nominative

(Subject)

How about:

This chicken is delicious.

Slide16

R

E

S

E

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

Nominative

(Subject)

Did you get:

Diese

s

Hähnchen

(or

Huhn

)

ist

lecker

.

Slide17

R

E

S

E

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

Nominative

(Subject)

One more:

Such a teacher (f) ist wonderful.

Slide18

R

E

S

E

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

Nominative

(Subject)

The (f) meant feminine. Did you get:

Solch

e

Lehrerin ist wunderbar.

Slide19

R

E

S

E

N

E

S

E

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

Nominative

(Subject)

Accusative

(Direct Object)

So now that you have mastered the nominative, young grasshopper, it is time to move to the next row.

Slide20

R

E

S

E

N

E

S

E

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

Nominative

(Subject)

Accusative

(Direct Object)

The next row says Accusative, which is mostly the direct object (although it goes beyond that). So you know what a direct object is, right?

Slide21

R

E

S

E

N

E

S

E

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

Nominative

(Subject)

Accusative

(Direct Object)

No, it’s not

a baton

an orchestra conductor uses. That’s not a direct object. Anyone know the definition?

Slide22

R

E

S

E

N

E

S

E

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

Nominative

(Subject)

Accusative

(Direct Object)

Here’s my take:

A direct object receives the direct action of the verb.

Or put more simply:

It’s what’s being

verbed

.

Slide23

R

E

S

E

N

E

S

E

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

Nominative

(Subject)

Accusative

(Direct Object)

So in a sentence like:

I see the man

I ask what is being verbed? (seen?)

Slide24

R

E

S

E

N

E

S

E

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

Nominative

(Subject)

Accusative

(Direct Object)

The man is being verbed. He’s being seen. He is receiving the direct action of the verb.

Slide25

R

E

S

E

N

E

S

E

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

Nominative

(Subject)

Accusative

(Direct Object)

So when this happens in German, you follow the second row in the same way you did the Nominative.

Slide26

R

E

S

E

N

E

S

E

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

Nominative

(Subject)

Accusative

(Direct Object)

So from the subject:

De

r

Mann ist hier.

Now you have:

Ich sehe de

n

Mann.

Slide27

R

E

S

E

N

E

S

E

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

Nominative

(Subject)

Accusative

(Direct Object)

Similarly you would have:

Ich sehe di

e

Frau.

Ich sehe da

s

Kind.

Ich sehe di

e

Kinder.

Slide28

R

E

S

E

N

E

S

E

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

Nominative

(Subject)

Accusative

(Direct Object)

The other der words work here, too.

Ich sehe diese

n

Mann.

Ich sehe jed

e

Frau.

Ich sehe diese

s

Kind.

Ich sehe solch

e

Kinder.

Slide29

R

E

S

E

N

E

S

E

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

Nominative

(Subject)

Accusative

(Direct Object)

So what endings would go here?

Welch__ Junge schaut d__ Frau an?

Slide30

R

E

S

E

N

E

S

E

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

Nominative

(Subject)

Accusative

(Direct Object)

Did you get:

Welche

r

Junge schaut di

e

Frau an?

Slide31

R

E

S

E

N

E

S

E

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

Nominative

(Subject)

Accusative

(Direct Object)

How about:

Dies__ Hund grüßt jed__ Katze.

Slide32

R

E

S

E

N

E

S

E

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

Nominative

(Subject)

Accusative

(Direct Object)

Did you get:

Diese

r

Hund grüßt jed

e

Katze.

Slide33

R

E

S

E

N

E

S

E

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

Nominative

(Subject)

Accusative

(Direct Object)

How about this one:

Jed__ Junge schaut dies__ Mädchen an.

Slide34

R

E

S

E

N

E

S

E

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

Nominative

(Subject)

Accusative

(Direct Object)

Did you get:

Jede

r

Junge schaut diese

s

Mädchen an.

Slide35

R

E

S

E

N

E

S

E

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

Nominative

(Subject)

Accusative

(Direct Object)

So try some of these translations:

The man kisses the woman.

Slide36

R

E

S

E

N

E

S

E

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

Nominative

(Subject)

Accusative

(Direct Object)

Did you get:

De

r

Mann küsst di

e

Frau.

Slide37

R

E

S

E

N

E

S

E

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

Nominative

(Subject)

Accusative

(Direct Object)

How about this one:

This teacher (m) buys such a pen!

Slide38

R

E

S

E

N

E

S

E

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

Nominative

(Subject)

Accusative

(Direct Object)

Did you get:

Diese

r

Lehrer kauft solche

n

Kuli!

Slide39

R

E

S

E

N

E

S

E

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

Nominative

(Subject)

Accusative

(Direct Object)

Careful! Potential Pitfall!

Although

es

gibt

means there is/are and

es

gab

means there was/were, they

literally

mean “it gives” and “it gave”!

Slide40

R

E

S

E

N

E

S

E

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

Nominative

(Subject)

Accusative

(Direct Object)

Careful! Potential Pitfall!

Therefore, whatever “

es

gibt

”, is “given”, making it the direct object of the verb

gibt

(accusative), while

es

functions as the subject (nominative), the giver.

Slide41

R

E

S

E

N

E

S

E

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

Nominative

(Subject)

Accusative

(Direct Object)

So how would you say, “There is man”?

Slide42

R

E

S

E

N

E

S

E

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

Nominative

(Subject)

Accusative

(Direct Object)

Did you get:

Es

gibt

einen

Mann.

Slide43

R

E

S

E

N

E

S

E

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

Nominative

(Subject)

Accusative

(Direct Object)

Okay. One more

gem:

Most nouns that end in –

er

are masculine.

Eimer

,

Verkäufer

, Computer, etc.

Slide44

Slide45

R

E

S

E

N

E

S

E

M

R

M

N

+n

S

+s

R

S

+s

R

-e

-en

masculine

feminine

neuter

plural

adjective

Endings

Nominative

(Subject)

Accusative

(Direct Object)

Dative

(Indirect Object)

Genitive

(Possessive)