Brown Paper

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Process Mapping. Gemini Skills Workshop. July 1998. Outline of Session. Purpose of a Brown Paper. Elements of a Brown Paper . Building a Brown Paper . Appendix. What to include. Practical hints. Preparing for presenting at a Brown Paper Fair. ID: 137029 Download Presentation

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Brown Paper

Process Mapping. Gemini Skills Workshop. July 1998. Outline of Session. Purpose of a Brown Paper. Elements of a Brown Paper . Building a Brown Paper . Appendix. What to include. Practical hints. Preparing for presenting at a Brown Paper Fair.

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Brown Paper




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Presentation on theme: "Brown Paper"— Presentation transcript:

Slide1

Brown Paper Process Mapping

Gemini Skills Workshop

July 1998

Slide2

Outline of Session

Purpose of a Brown Paper

Elements of a Brown Paper

Building a Brown Paper

Appendix

What to include

Practical hints

Preparing for presenting at a Brown Paper Fair

Slide3

The Brown Paper helps identify and gain support for Opportunities

...describes the process as it works today from start to end ...may be used to describe the process as it should be...shows the big picture...is high touch, low-tech...identifies strengths and opportunities...captures the complexity and disconnects of operational issues...quantifies elements of timing, volume, resource requirement...develops enthusiasm and ownership of issues...builds project momentum...is self-explanatory

The Brown Paper...

PURPOSE OF A BROWN PAPER

Slide4

The technique is superb at breaking down hierarchical boundaries and developing broad client ownership

Why Do We Use Brown Papers?

For Gemini...

The Gemini Team . . .

. . . often has limited time to gather information

. . . understands the “generic process”, but not the process specific to the client. . . has hypotheses of potential opportunities - based on limited data and past experience, which need to be tested . . . needs to surface the politicsand emotions involved in the current situation

. . . and the Client

The Brown Paper map . . .. . . describes the process as they use it today and identifying who gets involved, how, and where. . . identifies strengths and opportunities as they see them. . . provides the basis for further data gathering / studies. . . helps to mobilise the client and allows them to focus on the opportunities without blame

PURPOSE OF A BROWN PAPER

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Title

Brown Paper

xxxx

xxx

xx

Sign-in

Sheet

Task

Decision

Strength

(Typically

Green)

Live

Documents

Red Flags

Highlighting

Key Opportunities

Clarification

(Typically

Yellow)

Link to Another

Process

Summary

of

Strengths

Summary

of

Opportunities

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Opportunity

(Typically

Pink)

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But for every standard there are exceptions — check what’s preferred by the client or the project manager!

What Does a Brown Paper Process Map Look Like?

ELEMENTS OF A BROWN PAPER

Slide6

Use the following symbols for activity, decision and link to another process

Describes activity/task performed

Starts with an action verb

Use few words (less than 5)

e.g. “Receive order”, “Dispatch sales person”, “Give feedback to customer” etc.

Include organisation unit/person who does the task today

Both official and daily life names

Describe decision as a yes/no questione.g. “Fault found in local loop?”, “Found OK?”etcWrite English translation in brackets underneathQuantify outcome (volume, percentage)

Link to another process flow outside this Brown PaperDescribe required input/output

“Question”

Yes

xx%

No

xx%

“Process Name”

Comments

ELEMENTS OF A BROWN PAPER

Task

Slide7

Use the following symbols for comments and to flag an opportunity

Comment on activity, process flow etc.

Include valuable information, e.g:

man-years used for activity

number of iterations (rework) dwell times etc.

Highlights an opportunity to improveNumber flag to reference it

Comment

“ # ”

Flag an Opportunity

Shows that an information system is involved

Include valuable information, e.g:

name of systems

responsible persons

link to other IT support system s

etc.

Name of

IT system

ELEMENTS OF A BROWN PAPER

Slide8

Connect activities with lines and arrows

Standard activity connection with flow direction

Indicates that flow lines cross each other

Indicates telephone or other electronic transmission

ELEMENTS OF A BROWN PAPER

Draw the lines on the brown paper itself - first with a pencil (draft), then with a thick black pen

Slide9

Placement of Panels on Brown Paper

To the far left: introduction to the

BP, who made the BP and sign in

sheet.

To the far right: summary of findings, strengths and opportunities

ELEMENTS OF A BROWN PAPER

Slide10

Use different coloured “Post-it” notes for comments

Red

Green

Yellow

To point out an area of improvement

To point out a strength

To comment on process flow

e.g. disagreement with the way the process has been mapped

ELEMENTS OF A BROWN PAPER

Slide11

The “Brown Paper process” includes more than the actual mapping of the process flow

Analyse

Analyse for root causes

Try to understand costs, cost drivers and key performance indicators

Logistics

Build

Review

Hypothesize about todays

process

Think about what information you need to validate hypothesis

Invite the “right” people to build the process flow

Logistics

Map the “As Is” process flow

Gather as much information around the process as possible

Invite people to give comments to the Brown PaperValidate the Brown Paper with staff and managementArrange Brown Paper Fairs

Plan

Do

Review

BUILDING A BROWN PAPER

Prepare

Slide12

How do I start?

PrepareBe clear about the objective and scopeHypotheses about the process today and about benefits, opportunities, dataCreate a draft of the process Decide appropriate level of detailgiven the potential opportunities and time constraintsSet-Up LogisticsPeople to make it (owner, credible experts & users, facilitator/helper)Prepare materials (cut/taped brown paper, post-it’s, icons) Location (wall space, strong wall-paper)Time contract

Plan

BUILDING A BROWN PAPER

Slide13

How do I create a Brown Paper?

Build the Brown PaperReiterate objectives and expectationsClarify scope - start and end points, interfacesProvide some guidance on level of detail“Just-do-it” — it’s easy to course correct, but it’s painful to procrastinateIdentify where you need further details and arrange next steps to get themCapture strengths and opportunities as you progressAsk the participants at the end what they think the key opportunitiesand concerns areAllow time for client to air complaints and frustrations

BUILDING A BROWN PAPER

Do

Slide14

What do I do next?

ReviewFollow-up next stepsSmarten up the paper as necessary Capture/review builds from review group(s)Highlight and validate key strengths and weaknessesAnalyseDesign necessary in-depth studiesIdentify “Early Wins”Identify root causesLook at the process from a customers point of viewUse the BP as a starting point to understand costs, cost drivers and key performance indicators

BUILDING A BROWN PAPER

Review

Slide15

Appendix

What to include

Practical hints

Preparing for a Brown Paper Fair

Slide16

The Brown Papers should include facts to enable a comprehensive evaluation of the process

Person/function carrying out each activity (who does what)How many people involvedHow much time is spent in the process/activity (man years used)Volumes, Values of flowsBacklogsTouch timesTime in system elapsed time, cycle timeDwell times & reasons e.g. “rest” time on a desk before being processedErrorshow often

WHAT TO INCLUDE

Slide17

The Brown Papers should include facts to enable a comprehensive evaluation of the process (cont.)

Rework - Nº of iterationsChecking when, by whom, how much time, whyApproval points & funding gatesAuthority level needed to take decision, sign document etc.Interface traffic & hand offs mail, telephone, office system, E-mail etc.Input/output that are requiredDuplication of work at boundariesInformation about the IT systems used in the process

WHAT TO INCLUDE

(Cont:)

Slide18

Get as much written information around the process as possible

Attach copies of actual documentation used, e.g. formsObtain copies of all working documentsGet documents/reports describing processGet information on past and present initiatives that address the processProject PlanNames, org. unit and phone numbers of key persons involved in the initiativePreliminary reports etc.IT systems supporting the process should be clearly shown on the Brown Paperindicate along the process where the different IT systems are used (e.g. use different icons for different systems)have a separate section on the Brown Paper describing the different IT systems

WHAT TO INCLUDE

Slide19

Some practical hints

Have complete supply kit Keep a spare set of icons - you never have enoughStrengthen the edges of the Brown Paper with tape Use yellow or white “Post-it” notes first for each activity/task before rewriting them on white rectanglesMake sure hand-written text is easy for others to readDraw connections with a soft pencil first, to enable adjustmentsInitially attach papers in a way that they are easy to move around Don´t glue down any papers until the Brown Paper has been reviewedMake sure you use glue that will lastTape “post-its” on with small tape

PRACTICAL HINTS

Slide20

Some process hints

Prepare a rough draft (high level flow) Based on preliminary discussions and knowledge on a separate sheet and integrate with content expertsClearly define the start and stop points in the processManage the scopeDo not try to depict a lengthy/complex process Flow in a single sessionClear objectivesGet “creators” to do the work while joint team member “facilitates”When they get involved they will really feel ownership for the outcomeFocus on what really happens - not what is supposed to happenKeep participants focused on the “As Is” - not the “To Be”To maintain continuity try to have a team of people that can be there for the whole session when constructing the Brown Paper

PRACTICAL HINTS

Slide21

Some process hints (cont.)

Continue probing, what else?, what happens next?, how often?Keep them moving; don´t let them deliberate too much (maintain focus)Remember the 80:20 rule when driving the detailIntegrate “presenting back” what is on paper This helps clarify the process and facilitates knowledge transferNever leave the Brown Paper to be done by people who do not have the proper trainingAlways ask: who else should see this, or who else is involved in the process?

PRACTICAL HINTS

Slide22

How Do I Prepare for a Brown/White Paper Fair

3. Communicate Expectations & Promote the EventUse all available methods of communication (meeting cascade, E-mail, 1-2-1’s)If necessary create concern / intrigue to ensure participationPre-position key clients to be there and be interested Discuss behavioural norms 4. Prepare the Papers. . . And prepare the people to ‘man’ themToo perfect and people won’t want to criticise5. Do ItWelcome and ‘sign-in’ at entranceKeep the atmosphere up beat Role-model listening and post-it issuescapture, and coach people to do it6. Follow-upExpect, plan for, and fulfill/manage the expectations that are generated

1. Schedule Time(s)There will never be a perfect time - be brave and pick one - with interest, people will make timeMay need a few events e.g. night shifts; different sites/offices; management &/or others2. Plan the LogisticsClient owner / champion - at /near ‘the top’Coordinator with time and accountability(client & Gemini involvement needed)AgendaRoom & layoutAppropriate running order of the papersExtraordinary needs - popcorn in America, Oompah bands in Europe!Launch / instructions by a (client) leaderHand-out for guidance and to collect feedback

PREPARE FOR A BROWN PAPER FAIR

Slide23

How do I Present the Brown Paper?

Define the work process flow:Purpose of the flowLegend describing brown paper iconsDescribe the client involvement:Participation from people in various functionsDescribe the process analyzed:Identify the processDescribe the beginning and end point of the processDescribe major blocks of activity in the processDescribe activities and decisionsCapture vital details (ratio, # of times, etc.)Understand decision dynamicsMade alone/groupImportance/frequencyIndividuals involvedDescribe overall strengths and opportunities:Key comments and anecdotes made by client participantsSolicit input from the audienceSummarize strengths and opportunities

Presentation of the process can be anywhere from five minutes to one hour depending on the objectives of the presentation.

PREPARE FOR A BROWN PAPER FAIR

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